2018
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Investigating the Performance of Coated Carbide Insert in Hard Steel Helical Milling
2
2
Helical milling is an alternative holemaking machining process which presents several advantages when compared to conventional drilling. In the helical milling process, the tool proceeds a helical path while rotates around its own axis. Due to its flexible kinematics, low cutting forces, tool wear, and improved borehole quality may be achieved. In this study, a new helical milling process to create holes in hardened steel with a hardness of HRC 52 was used. Carbide inserts with PVD TiN coating were applied. Input parameters including cutting speed and feed rate were considered in 4 and 2 levels, respectively. In order to increase the reliability of the results, experiments were repeated 4 times and the total of 32 tests were performed. Other cutting parameters, such as axial and radial depth of cut were constant. Machining process was performed in dry state and without any lubricant. Output characteristics were tool wear, surface roughness, cutting force, machining time and material removal rate. Tool wear, surface roughness and forces, were measured by tool maker microscopy, roughness tester and dynamometer, respectively. The results showed that increasing the cutting speed on this type of hardened steel, decreases the surface roughness, machining forces and machining time. However, increasing the cutting speed and the feed rate enhances the tool wear and material removal rate considerably. Cutting speed and Feed rate of 50 m/min and 0.05 mm/tooth, offered the best mechanical properties of the Machining.
1

1
9


Behnam
Davoodi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran
bdavoodi@iust.ac.ir


Navid
Molla Ramezani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran
navid_mollaramezani@mecheng.iust.ac.ir


Mojtaba
Rezaee Hajideh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University
Iran
mrhagideh68@gmail.com
Coated Carbide Tool
Hard Steel
Helical Milling
High Performance Machining
[[1] Gustavo, D. S. G., Filho, M. S., and Batalha, G. F., Hard Turning of Tempered DIN 100Cr6 Steel with Coated and no Coated CBN Inserts, Journal of Materials Processing Technology Vol. 179, No. 1, 2006, pp. 146153. ##[2] Tönshoff, H. K., Arendt, C., and Ben, A. R., Cutting of Hardened Steel, CIRP AnnalsManufacturing Technology Vol. 49, No. 2, 2000, pp. 547566. ##[3] Liu, Z. Q., Ai, X., Zhang, H., Wang, Z. T., and Wan, Y., Wear Patterns and Mechanisms of Cutting Tools in HighSpeed Face Milling, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 129, No. 1, 2002, pp. 222226. ##[4] Sahoo, Kumar, A., and Sahoo, B., Performance Studies of Multilayer Hard Surface Coatings (TiN/TiCN/Al 2 O 3/TiN) of Indexable Carbide Inserts in Hard Machining: PartII (RSM, Grey Relational and Techno Economical Approach), Measurement, Vol. 46, No. 8, 2013, pp. 28682884. ##[5] Yamada, Y., Aoki, T., Tanaka, Y., Kitaura, S., and Hayasaki, H., (Al, Ti) N Coated Carbide Endmills for DifficulttoCut Materials, in: Proceedings of the Third International Conference On Progress Cutting and Grinding, 19996, pp. 211. ##[6] Çalışkan, H., Kurbanoğlu, C., Panjan, P., Čekada, M., and Kramar, D., Wear Behavior and Cutting Performance of Nanostructured Hard Coatings on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools in Hard Milling, Tribology International, Vol. 62, 2013, pp. 215222. ##[7] Kalpakjian, S, Schmid, S. R., Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials–5th Edition. Agenda, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2014. ##[8] Molla Ramezani, N., Rasti, A., Sadeghi, M. H., Jabbaripour, B., and Rezaei Hajideh, M., Experimental Study of Tool Wear and Surface Roughness on High Speed Helical Milling in D2 Steel. Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 20, 2016, pp.198202. ##[9] Molla Ramezani, N., Ranjbar, H., Sadeghi, M. H., and Rasti, A., Helical Milling of ColdWork AISI D2 Steel with PVD Carbide Tool under Dry Conditions, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 20, 2016, pp.203206. ##[10] Iyer, R., Koshy, P., and Ng, E., Helical Milling: an Enabling Technology for Hard Machining Precision Holes in AISI D2 Tool Steel, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2007, pp. 205210. ##[11] Hao, L., He, G., Qin, X., Wang, G., Lu, C., and Gui, L., Tool Wear and Hole Quality Investigation in Dry Helical Milling of Ti6Al4V Alloy, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 71, No. 58, 2014, pp. 15111523. ##[12] Veldhuis, S. C., Dosbaeva, G. K., and Yamamoto, K., Tribological Compatibility and Improvement of Machining Productivity and Surface Integrity, Tribology International, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2009, pp. 10041010. ##[13] Brinksmeier, Ekkard, Fangmann, S., and Meyer, I., Orbital Drilling kinematics, Production Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2008, pp. 277283. ##[14] Rech, J., Moisan, A., Surface Integrity in Finish Hard Turning of CaseHardened Steels, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2003, pp. 543550. ##[15] Masato, O., Hosokawa, A., Tanaka, R., and Ueda, T., Cutting Performance of PVDCoated Carbide and CBN Tools in Hard Milling, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2011, pp. 127132. ##[16] Aslan, E., Experimental Investigation of Cutting Tool Performance in High Speed Cutting of Hardened X210 Cr12 ColdWork Tool Steel (62 HRC), Materials & Design, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2005, pp. 2127. ##[17] FoxRabinovich, G. S., Veldhuis, S. C., Dosbaeva, G. K., Yamamoto, K., Kovalev, A. I., Wainstein, D. L., Gershman, I. S., Shuster, L. S., and Beake, B. D., Nanocrystalline Coating Design for Extreme Applications Based on the Concept of Complex Adaptive Behavior, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, No. 8, 2008, pp. 835860. ##[18] Imani, H., Molla Ramezani, N., Sadeghi, M. H. and Rasti, A., The Effect of Hole Making Method on Cutting Force and Surface Roughness. Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 20, 2016, pp. 285290. ##[19] Molla Ramezani, N., Rezaei Hajideh, M. and Shahmirzaloo, A., Experimental Study of the Cutting Parameters Effect on Hole Making Processes in Hardened Steel. Journal of Modern Processes in Manufacturing and Production, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2017, pp. 6776. ##[20] Ranjbar, H., Molla Ramezani, N., Sadeghi, M. H. and Rasti, A., The Effects of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Cutting Forces in Hard Reaming of D2 Steel by Using Multi–Flutes Tool, Modares Mechanical Engineering, VoL. 15, 20, 2016, pp. 275279. ##]
Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of FG NanoBeams in Thermal Environment and Resting on Nonlinear Foundation based on Nonlocal and StrainInertia Gradient Theory
2
2
In present research, nonlinear vibration of functionally graded nanobeams subjected to uniform temperature rise and resting on nonlinear foundation is comprehensively studied. The elastic center can be defined to remove stretching and bending couplings caused by the FG material variation. The smallsize effect, playing essential role in the dynamical behavior of nanobeams, is considered here applying straininertia gradient and nonlocal elasticity theory. The governing partial differential equations have been derived based on the EulerBernoulli beam theory utilizing the von Karman straindisplacement relations. Subsequently, using the Galerkin method, the governing equations is reduced to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The closed form analytical solution of the nonlinear natural frequency is then established using the homotopy analysis method. Finally, the effects of different parameters such as length, nonlinear elastic foundation parameter, thermal loading, nonlocal parameter and gradient parameters are comprehensively investigated on the FG nanobeams vibration using the homotopy analysis method. As the main results, it is observed that by increasing the nonlocal parameter, the frequency ratio for straininertia gradient theory has an increasing trend while it has decreasing trend for nonlocal elasticity theory. Also, the nonlinear natural frequencies obtained using straininertia gradient theory are greater than the results of nonlocal elasticity and classical theory.
1

11
24


Ebrahim
Mahmoudpour
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Borujerd branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Borujerd
Iran
e.mahmoudpour@iaub.ac.ir
FG Nanobeam
Homotopy Analysis Method
Nonlinear Foundation
StrainInertia Gradient Theory
[[1] Wessel, J. K., The Handbook of Advanced Materials: Enabling New Designs, John Wiley & Sons, 2004. ##[2] Witvrouw, A., Mehta, A., The Use of Functionally Graded PolySiGe Layers for MEMS Applications, In Materials Science forum, Trans Tech Publications, 2005, pp. 255260. ##[3] Miyamoto, Y., Kaysser, W. A., Rabin, B. H., Kawa saki, A., and Ford, R. G. eds., Functionally Graded Materials: Design, Processing and Applications, Springer Science & Business Media, Vol. 5, 2013. ##[4] Eringen, A. C., On Differential Equations of Nonlocal Elasticity and Solutions of Screw Dislocation and Surface Waves, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 54, No. 9, 1983, pp. 47034710. ##[5] Togun, N., Bağdatlı, S. M., Nonlinear Vibration of a Nanobeam on a Pasternak Elastic Foundation Based on NonLocal EulerBernoulli Beam Theory, Mathematical and Computational Applications, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2016, pp. 3. ##[6] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., Analysis of Wave Propagation in a Functionally Graded Nanobeam Resting on ViscoPasternak’s Foundation, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, 2017. ##[7] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., A Simplified Shear and Normal Deformations Nonlocal Theory for Bending of Functionally Graded Piezomagnetic Sandwich Nanobeams in MagnetoThermoElectric Environment, Journal of Sandwich Structures & Materials, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2016, pp. 624651. ##[8] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., Thermal Stress and Deformation Analysis of a SizeDependent Curved Nanobeam Based on Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 2017. ##[9] Nazemnezhad, R., Hosseini Hashemi, S., Nonlocal Nonlinear Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Nanobeams, Composite Structures, Vol. 110, 2014, pp. 192199. ##[10] Ansari, R., Pourashraf, T., and Gholami, R., An Exact Solution for the Nonlinear Forced Vibration of Functionally Graded Nanobeams in Thermal Environment Based on Surface Elasticity Theory, ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 93, 2015, pp. 169176. ##[11] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., Transient Analysis of a ThreeLayer Microbeam Subjected to Electric Potential, International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials, 2017, pp. 2040. ##[12] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., Influence of MagnetoElectric Environments on SizeDependent Bending Results of ThreeLayer Piezomagnetic Curved Nanobeam Based on Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory, Journal of Sandwich Structures & Materials, 2017, pp. 1099636217723186. ##[13] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., Transient Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Formulation of a SizeDependent ThreeLayer PiezoMagnetic Curved Nanobeam, Acta Mechanica, Vol. 228, No. 10, 2017, pp. 36573674. ##[14] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., SizeDependent Vibration and Bending Analyses of the Piezomagnetic ThreeLayer Nanobeams, Applied Physics A, Vol. 123, No. 3, 2017, pp. 202. ##[15] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., SizeDependent ElectroElastic Analysis of a Sandwich Microbeam Based on HigherOrder Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory and Strain Gradient Theory, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 2017, pp. 1045389X17733333. ##[16] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., Vibration and Bending Analysis of a Sandwich Microbeam with Two Integrated PiezoMagnetic FaceSheets, Composite Structures, Vol. 1, No. 159, 2017, pp. 479490. ##[17] Arefi, M., Zenkour, A. M., Wave Propagation Analysis of a Functionally Graded MagnetoElectroElastic Nanobeam Rest on ViscoPasternak Foundation, Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 79, 2017, pp. 5162. ##[18] Arefi, M., Pourjamshidian, M., and Arani, A. G., Application of Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory and Various Shear Deformation Theories to Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Sandwich NanoBeam with FGCNTRCs FaceSheets in ElectroThermal Environment, Applied Physics A, Vol. 123, No. 5, 2017, pp. 323. ##[19] Liao, S., Series Solution of Large Deformation of a Beam with Arbitrary Variable Cross Section Under an Axial load, The ANZIAM Journal, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1033. ##[20] Liao, S., Series Solution of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Means of the Homotopy Analysis Method, Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2009, pp. 24552470. ##[21] Shahlaei Far, S., Nabarrete, A., and Balthazar, J. M., Nonlinear Vibrations of Cantilever Timoshenko Beams: a Homotopy Analysis, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 10, 2016, pp. 18661877. ##[22] Askes, H., Aifantis, E. C., Gradient Elasticity in Statics and Dynamics: An Overview of Formulations, Length Scale Identification Procedures, Finite Element Implementations and New Results, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 48, No. 13, 2011, pp. 19621990. ##[23] Daneshmand, F., Rafiei, M., Mohebpour, S. R., and Heshmati, M., Stress and StrainInertia Gradient Elasticity in Free Vibration Analysis of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes with First Order Shear Deformation Shell Theory, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 37, No. 16, 2013, pp. 79838003. ##[24] Karličić, D., Kozić, P., and Pavlović, R., Flexural Vibration and Buckling Analysis of SingleWalled Carbon Nanotubes Using Different Gradient Elasticity Theories Based on Reddy and HuuTai Formulations, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2015, pp. 53. ##[25] Eringen, A. C., Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories, Springer Science & Business Media, 2002. ##[26] Pradhan, S. C., Murmu, T., Small Scale Effect on the Buckling of SingleLayered Graphene Sheets Under Biaxial Compression Via Nonlocal Continuum Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2009, pp. 268274. ##[27] Murmu, T., Pradhan, S. C., Buckling of Biaxially Compressed Orthotropic Plates at Small Scales, Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 36, No. 8, 2009, pp. 933938. ##[28] Li, L., Hu, Y., Nonlinear Bending and Free Vibration Analyses of Nonlocal Strain Gradient Beams Made of Functionally Graded Material, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 107, 2016, pp. 7797. ##[29] Reddy, J. N., Theory and Analysis of Elastic Plates and Shells, CRC Press, 2006. ##[30] Ventsel, E., Krauthammer, T., Thin Plates and Shells: Theory: Analysis, and Applications, CRC Press, 2001. ##[31] Wang, C. M., Reddy, J. N., and Lee, K. H. eds., Shear Deformable Beams and Plates: Relationships with Classical Solutions, Elsevier, 2000. ##[32] Ansari, R., Gholami, R., and Rouhi, H., SizeDependent Nonlinear Forced Vibration Analysis of MagnetoElectroThermoElastic Timoshenko Nanobeams Based Upon the Nonlocal Elasticity Theory, Composite Structures, Vol. 126, 2015, pp. 216226. ##[33] Esfahani, S. E., Kiani, Y., Komijani, M., and Eslami, M. R., Vibration of a TemperatureDependent Thermally Pre/Postbuckled FGM Beam Over a Nonlinear Hardening Elastic Foundation, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2014, pp. 011004. ##[34] Raju, I. S., Rao, G. V., and Raju, K. K., Effect of Longitudinal or Inplane Deformation and Inertia on the Large Amplitude Flexural Vibrations of Slender Beams and Thin Plates, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 49, No. 3, 1976, pp. 415422. ##[35] Mindlin, R. D., Second Gradient of Strain and SurfaceTension in Linear Elasticity, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1965, pp. 417438. ##[36] Fleck, N. A. and Hutchinson, J. W., A Reformulation of Strain Gradient Plasticity, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 49, No. 10, 2001, pp. 22452271. ##[37] Li, L., Hu, Y., Buckling Analysis of SizeDependent Nonlinear Beams Based on a Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 97, 2015, pp. 8494. ##[38] Shokrieh, M. M., Zibaei, I., Determination of the Appropriate Gradient Elasticity Theory for Bending Analysis of NanoBeams by Considering Boundary Conditions Effect, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 12, No. 12, 2015, pp. 22082230. ##[39] Motallebi, A. A., Poorjamshidian, M., and Sheikhi, J., Vibration Analysis of a Nonlinear Beam Under Axial Force by Homotopy Analysis Method, Journal of Solid Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2014, pp. 28998. ##[40] Liao, S., Beyond Perturbation: Introduction to the Homotopy Analysis Method, CRC Press, 2003. ##[41] Pirbodaghi, T., Ahmadian, M. T., and Fesanghary, M., On the Homotopy Analysis Method for NonLinear Vibration of Beams, Mechanics Research Communications, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2009, pp. 143148. ##[42] Thomson, W., Theory of Vibration with Applications, CRC Press, 1996. ##[43] Nayfeh, A. H., Introduction to Perturbation Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, 1981. ##[44] Mathai, A. M., Haubold, H. J., Special Functions for Applied Scientists, Vol. 4, New York, Springer, 2008. ##[45] Singh, G., Sharma, A. K., and Rao, G. V., LargeAmplitude Free Vibrations of Beams—a Discussion on Various Formulations and Assumptions, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 142, No. 1, 1990, pp. 7785. ##[46] Askes, H., Aifantis, E. C., Gradient Elasticity and Flexural Wave Dispersion in Carbon Nanotubes, Physical Review B, Vol. 80, No. 19, 2009, pp. 195412. ##[47] Fallah, A., Aghdam, M. M., Nonlinear Free Vibration and PostBuckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams on Nonlinear Elastic Foundation, European Journal of MechanicsA/Solids, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2011, pp. 571583. ##]
Geometrical Effects of Duct on the Entropy Generation in the Laminar Forced Convection Separated Flow
2
2
In this research paper, irreversibility analysis of laminar forced convection flow in a duct with variable crosssection are numerically studied. Twodimensional Cartesian coordinate system is used to solve the set of governing equations and also the blockedoff method is considered for simulation of the inclined surfaces. To obtain the velocity and temperature fields, the basic equations are numerically solved using the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. To determine the flow irreversibility, the entropy generation number is calculated according to the thermodynamic second law. The geometrical effects of duct on the distributions of streamlines, friction coefficient, Nusselt number, entropy generation, and Bejan number are presented with details. The results show that the duct heights and inclination angle of surfaces have great effects on the flow irreversibility and the hydrodynamics and thermal behaviours. Also, comparison of the present numerical results with the available data published in the open literature shows an excellent consistency.
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25
34


Nasrin
Aminizadeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan
Iran
aminizadehn@sirjantech.ac.ir


Shima
Sotoodehnia
Young Researchers and Elite Club,
Sirjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan, Iran
Young Researchers and Elite Club,
Sirjan
Iran
shima.sotoodehnia@yahoo.com


Meysam
Atashafrooz
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan
Iran
m.atashafrooz@sirjantech.ac.ir
BlockedOff Method
Convection Heat Transfer
Entropy Generation
Flow Irreversibility
Variable CrossSection
[[1] Tylli, N., Kaiktsis L., and Ineichen, B., Side Wall Effects in Flow Over BackwardFacing Step: Experiments and Numerical Solutions, Physics Fluids, Vol. 14, No. 11, 2002, pp. 38353845. ##[2] Erturk, E., Numerical Solutions of 2D Steady Incompressible Flow over a Backwardfacing Step, Part I: High Reynolds Number Solutions, Computers & Fluids, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2008, pp. 633–655. ##[3] AbuMulaweh, H. I., A Review of Research on Laminar Mixed Convection Flow over Backward and Forwardfacing Steps, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 9, 2003, pp. 897909. ##[4] Armaly, B. F., Li, A., and Nie, J. H., Measurements in ThreeDimensional Laminar Separated Flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 46, No. 19, 2003, pp. 3573–3582. ##[5] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., and Lari, K., Coupled Thermal Radiation and Mixed Convection Step Flow of Nongray Gas, Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME), Vol. 138, No. 7, 2016, 072701–9. ##[6] Selimefendigil, F., Oztop, H. F., Numerical Analysis of Laminar Pulsating Flow at a Backward Facing Step with an Upper Wall Mounted Adiabatic Thin Fin, Computers & Fluids, Vol. 88, 2013, pp. 93107. ##[7] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., and Lari, K., Numerical Analysis of Interaction Between Nongray Radiation and Forced Convection Flow over a Recess Using the FullSpectrum KDistribution Method, Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2016, pp. 361377. ##[8] Brakely, D., Gabriela, M., Gomes M., and Henderson, R. D., ThreeDimensional Instability in Flow Over a Backward Facing Step, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 473, 2002, pp. 167190. ##[9] Nie, J. H., Armaly, B. F., ThreeDimensional Convective Flow Adjacent to BackwardFacing Step  Effects of Step Height, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 45, No. 12, 2002, pp. 2431–2438. ##[10] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., and Lari, K., Numerical study of Coupled NonGray Radiation and Separation Convection Flow in a Duct Using the FSK Method, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2016, pp. 2338. ##[11] Nie, J. H., Chen Y. T., and Hsieh, H. T., Effects of a Baffle on Separated Convection Flow Adjacent to BackwardFacing Step. International Journal Thermal Science, Vol. 48, 2009, pp. 618–625. ##[12] Tsay, Y. L., Chang, T. S., and Cheng, J. C., Heat Transfer Enhancement of Backwardfacing Step Flow in a Channel by Using Baffle Installation on Channel Wall, Acta Mechanica, Vol. 174, 2005, pp. 63–76. ##[13] Oztop, H. F., Mushatet, K. S., and Yılmaz, I˙., Analysis of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer over a Double Forward Facing Step with Obstacles, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2012, pp. 1395–1403. ##[14] Chen, Y. T., Nie, J. H., Hsieh, H. T., and Sun, L. J., ThreeDimensional Convection Flow Adjacent to Inclined BackwardFacing Step, International Journal Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, 2006, pp. 4795–4803. ##[15] Patankar, S. V., Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, Penn., USA, Chap. 7, 1981, ##[16] Lari, K., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., Analysis of Combined Radiative and Conductive Heat Transfer in ThreeDimensional Complex Geometries Using Blockedoff Method, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 35, M2, 2011, pp. 107119. ##[17] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., Numerical Analysis of Laminar Forced Convection Recess Flow with Two Inclined Steps Considering Gas Radiation Effect, Computers & Fluids, Vol. 66, 2012, pp. 167176. ##[18] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., Simulation of ThreeDimensional Laminar Forced Convection Flow of a Radiating Gas over an Inclined Backwardfacing Step in a Duct under Bleeding Condition, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 227, No. 2, 2012, pp. 332345. ##[19] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., and Sadat Behineh, E., Effects of Baffle on Separated Convection Step Flow of Radiating Gas in a Duct, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep. 2015, pp. 3347. ##[20] Byun, D. Y., Beak, S. W., and Kim, M. Y., Investigation of Radiative Heat Transfer in Complex Geometries Using Blockedoff, Multiblock and Embedded Boundary Treatments. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, International Journal of Computation and Methodology, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2003, pp. 807825. ##[21] Bahaidarah, H. M. S., Sahin, A. Z., Thermodynamic Analysis of Fluid Flow in Channels with Wavy Sinusoidal Walls, Thermal Science, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2013, pp. 813822. ##[22] Ko, T. H., Ting, K., Entropy Generation and Optical Analysis for Laminar Forced Convection in Curved Rectangular Ducts: A Numerical Study, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2006, pp. 138–150. ##[23] Mohaghegh, M. R., Esfahani, J. A., Entropy Generation Analysis of Free Convection from a Constant Temperature Vertical Plate using Similarity Solution, Thermal Science, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2016, pp. 18551866. ##[24] Kolsi, L., Abidi, A., Borjini, M., and Aissia H. B., The Effect of an External Magnetic Field on the Entropy Generation in ThreeDimensional Natural Convection, Thermal Science, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2010, pp. 341352. ##[25] Mamourian, M., Shirvan, K. M., Ellahi, R., and Rahimi, A. B., Optimization of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer with Entropy Generation in a Wavy Surface Square LidDriven Cavity by Means of Taguchi Approach, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 102, 2016, pp. 544554. ##[26] Oztop, H. F., Kolsi, L., Alghamdi, A., AbuHamdeh, N., Borjini, M. N., and Aissia, H. B., Numerical Analysis of Entropy Generation due to Natural Convection in ThreeDimensional Partially Open Enclosures, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 75, 2017, pp. 131140. ##[27] AbuNada, E., Investigation of Entropy Generation over a Backward Facing Step under Bleeding Conditions, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 49, No. 11, 2008, pp. 32373242. ##[28] AbuNada, E., Numerical Prediction of Entropy Generation in Separated Flows, Entropy, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2005, pp. 234252. ##[29] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., and Ansari, A. B., Numerical Study of Entropy Generation in Laminar Forced Convection Flow over Inclined Backward and Forward Facing Steps in a Duct, International Review of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 5, 2011, pp. 898907. ##[30] Atashafrooz, M., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., and Ansari, A. B., Numerical Investigation of Entropy Generation in Laminar Forced Convection Flow over Inclined Backward and Forward Facing Steps in a Duct under Bleeding Condition, Thermal Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2014, pp. 479492. ##[31] Bahrami, A., Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. A., Study of Entropy Generation in Laminar Forced Convection Flow over a Forwardfacing Step in a Duct, International Review of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2010, pp. 399404. ##[32] Patankar, S. V., Spalding, D. B., A Calculation Procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in ThreeDimensional Parabolic Flows, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 15, No.10, 1972, pp. 1787–1806. ##]
Sensitivity Analysis for Optimal Design of Multibody Systems with Clearance Joint
2
2
This paper deals with the sensitivity analysis and optimization of system parameters for a classical slidercrank mechanism as a multibody system which includes a clearance between the joints of coupler and slider. Due to the nonlinearity involved in the dynamics of clearance joints, the base reaction force, exerted on the base from the crank, changes roughly and does not vary as smooth as the case of the mechanism with ideal joint. Variation of the base reaction force can be a measure of the undesired vibrations induced due to the effect of clearance joint. After deriving the equations of motion and modeling the clearance, the direct differentiation method is used to conduct a local sensitivity analysis to assess the sensitivity measure of the base reaction force on some kinematic and contact parameters. The results show that the reaction force is more sensitive to the variation of link lengths and link masses compared to the variation of contact surface characteristics such as Young’s modulus, restitution coefficient and contact generalized stiffness in most parts of the motion cycle. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the base reaction force to the clearance size is very higher than its sensitivity to the abovementioned kinematic and contact properties. Finally, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis, an optimization procedure is used to reduce the amount of the maximum base reaction force by choosing the optimized link lengths.
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35
44


Saeed
Ebrahimi
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Faculty
Iran
ebrahimi@yazd.ac.ir


Esmaeil
Salahshoor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Yazd University, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Yazd
Iran
esalahshoor@stu.yazd.ac.ir


Saeed
Nouri
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Yazd University, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Yazd
Iran
saeed_mech_engineering@yahoo.com
Clearance Joint
Direct Differentiation
Momentum Exchange Approach
optimization
Sensitivity analysis
[[1] Flores, P., Ambrósio, J., Pimenta Claro, J. C., and Lankarani, H. M., Kinematics and Dynamics of Multibody Systems with Imperfect Joints, Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, Vol. 34, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Germany, 2008. ##[2] Ebrahimi, S., A Contribution to Computational Contact Procedures in Flexible Multibody Systems, Ph.D. Dissertation, Reihe: Schriften aus dem Institut für Technische und Numerische Mechanik der Universität Stuttgart, Band 8, Shaker Verlag, Germany, 2007. ##[3] Ebrahimi, S., Eberhard, P., Contact of Planar Flexible Multibody Systems Using a Linear Complementarity Formulation, PAMM Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Vol. 5, 2005, pp. 197198. ##[4] Zhang, X., Zhang, X., and Chen, Z., Dynamic Analysis of a 3RRR Parallel Mechanism with Multiple Clearance Joints, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 78, 2014, pp. 105115. ##[5] Erkaya, S., Analysis of Joint Clearance Effects on Dynamics of Six DOF Robot Manipulators, Mechanisms and Machine Science, Vol. 24, 2015, pp. 307314. ##[6] Li, Y., Quan, Q., Li, H., Tang, D., Li, Z., Fan, W., and Deng, Z., Air Rudder Mechanism Dynamics Considering Two Elements: Joint Clearance and Link Flexibility, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 7, 2017, pp. 3189–3197. ##[7] Ben Abdallah, M. A., Khemili, I., and Aifaoui, N., Numerical Investigation of a Flexible Slider–crank Mechanism with Multijoints with Clearance, Multibody System Dynamics, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2016, pp. 173–199. ##[8] Wang, X., Liu, G., Modeling and Simulation of Revolute Joint with Clearance in Planar Multibody Systems, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 10, 2015, pp. 4113–4120. ##[9] Salahshoor, E., Ebrahimi, S., and Maasoomi, M., Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Mechanical Systems with Multiple Joint Clearances using the Method of Multiple Scales, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 105, 2016, pp. 495–509. ##[10] Li, P., Chen, W., Li, D., Yu, R., A Novel Transition Model for Lubricated Revolute Joints in Planar Multibody Systems, Multibody System Dynamics, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2016, pp. 279–294. ##[11] Ebrahimi, S., Salahshoor, E., and Maasoomi, M., Application of the Method of Multiple Scales for Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Mechanical Systems with Dry and Lubricated Clearance Joints, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Vibration and Acoustics, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2017, pp. 4261. ##[12] Mukras, S., Kim, N. H., Mauntler, N. A., Schmitz, T. L., and Sawyer, W. G., Analysis of Planar Multibody Systems with Revolute Joint Wear, Wear, Vol. 268, 2010, pp. 643–652. ##[13] Su, Y., Chen, W., Tong, Y., and Xie, Y., Wear Prediction of Clearance Joint by Integrating Multibody Kinematics with Finite Element Method, Proc. ImechE part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, Vol. 224, 2010, pp. 815823. ##[14] Feng, B. Z., Yang, Z., and Gui, W. X., Wear Analysis of Revolute Joints with Clearance in Multibody Systems, Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy, Vol. 56, 2013, pp. 1581–1590. ##[15] Pei, L., Wei, C., and Bin, Z. A., An Improved Practical Model for Wear Prediction of Revolute Clearance Joints in Crank Slider Mechanisms, Science China Technological Sciences, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2013, pp. 29532963. ##[16] Zhao, B., Zhang, Z. N., and Dai, X. D., Modeling and Prediction of Wear at Revolute Clearance Joints in Flexible Multibody Systems, Proc. ImechE part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 228, No. 2, 2014, pp. 317329. ##[17] Zhao, B., Dai, X. D., Zhang, Z. N., Wu, S. H., and Xie, Y. B., Numerical Study of Parametric Effects on Joint Wear in the Flexible Multibody Systems with Different Flexibilities and Clearance Sizes, Proc. ImechE part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, Vol. 228, No. 8, 2014, pp. 819835. ##[18] Flores, P., A Parametric Study on the Dynamic Response of Planar Multibody Systems with Multiple Clearance Joints, Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol. 61, 2010, pp. 633–653. ##[19] Wang, X., Liu, G., Ma, S., and Tong, R., Effects of Restitution Coefficient and Material Characteristics on Dynamic Response of Planar Multibody Systems with Revolute Clearance Joint, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2017, pp. 587597. ##[20] Zhang, Z., Xu, L., Tay, Y. Y., Flores, P., and Lankarani, H., MultiObjective Optimization of Mechanisms with Clearances in Revolute Joints, Mechanisms and Machine Science, Vol. 24, 2015, pp. 423433. ##[21] Erkaya, S., Uzmay, I., Optimization of Transmission Angle for SliderCrank Mechanism with Joint Clearances, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol. 37, 2009, pp. 493–508. ##[22] Erkaya, S., Uzmay, I., Investigation on Effect of Joint Clearance on Dynamics of Fourbar Mechanism, Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol. 58, 2009, pp. 179–198. ##[23] Sardashti, A., Daniali, H. M., and Varedi, S. M., Optimal FreeDefect Synthesis of Fourbar Linkage with Joint Clearance using PSO Algorithm, Meccanica, Vol. 48, 2013, pp. 1681–1693. ##[24] Daniali, H. M., Varedi, S. M., Dardel, M., and Fathi, A., A Novel Algorithm for Kinematic and Dynamic Optimal Synthesis of Planar FourBar Mechanisms with Joint Clearance, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2015, pp. 2059–2065. ##[25] Rahmanian, S., Ghazavi, M. R., Bifurcation in Planar Slider–Crank Mechanism with Revolute Clearance Joint, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 91, 2015, pp. 86–101. ##[26] Farahan, S. B., Ghazavi, M. R., and Rahmanian, S., Bifurcation in a Planar Fourbar Mechanism with Revolute Clearance Joint, Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol. 87, No. 2, 2017, pp. 955–973. ##[27] Vaidya, A. M., Padole, P. M., A Performance Evaluation of FourBar Mechanism Considering Flexibility of Links and Joints Stiffness, The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, Vol. 4, 2010, pp. 1628. ##[28] Erkaya, S., Prediction of Vibration Characteristics of a Planar Mechanism Having Imperfect Joints using Neural Network, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 26, 2012, pp. 14191430. ##[29] Ebrahimi, S., Salahhoor, E., and Moradi, S., Vibration Performance Evaluation of Planar Flexible Multibody Systems with Joint Clearance, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 39, No. 12, 2017, pp. 48954909. ##[30] Salahhoor, E., Ebrahimi, S., and Zhang, Y., Frequency Analysis of a Typical Planar Flexible Multibody System with Joint Clearances, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 126, 2018, pp. 429456. ##[31] Ebrahimi, S., Vahdatazad, N., Multiobjective Optimization and Sensitivity Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Cylindrical Columns under Axial Crushing Loads, ThinWalled Structures, Vol. 88, 2015, pp. 90–104. ##[32] Innocenti, C., Kinematic Clearance Sensitivity Analysis of Spatial Structures with Revolute Joints, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 124, No. 1, 1999, pp. 5257. ##[33] Tsai, M. J., Lai, T. H., Kinematic Sensitivity Analysis of Linkage with Joint Clearance based on Transmission Quality, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 39, No. 11, 2004, pp. 11891206. ##[34] Deng, Y., Kinematic Sensitivity Analysis of Two Degrees of Freedom Translational Parallel Manipulators, Master Thesis, Research Institute in Communications and Cybernetic of Nantes, University of Genova, 2012. ##[35] Dai, Y., Fu, Y., Li, B., Wang, X., Yu, T., and Wang, W., Clearance Effected Accuracy and Error Sensitivity Analysis: A New Nonlinear Equivalent Method for Spatial Parallel Robot, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2017, pp. 5493–5504. ##[36] Flores, P., Ambrosio, J., On the Contact Detection for Contactimpact Analysis in Multibody Systems, Multibody System Dynamics, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2010, pp. 103122. ##[37] Anderson, K. S., Hsu, Y. H., Analytical Fully Recursive Sensitivity Analysis for Multibody Dynamic Chain Systems, Multibody System Dynamics, Vol. 8, 2002, pp. 1–27. ##[38] Ebrahimi, S., Haghi, A., Characterization of the Contribution of Inertial Parameters to the Dynamics of Multibody Systems, Multibody System Dynamics, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2010, pp. 449460. ##[39] Chang, C. O., Nikravesh P. E., Optimal Design of Mechanical Systems with Constraint Violation Stabilization Method, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol. 107, 1985, pp. 493498. ##[40] Eberhard, P., Schiehlen, W., and Sierts, J., Sensitivity Analysis of Inertia Parameters in Multibody Dynamics Simulations, 12th IFToMM World Congress, Besancon, June 1821, 2007. ##[41] Ebrahimi, S., Hajizadeh, I., and Payvandy, P., Multiobjective Constrained Optimization of a Newly Developed Needle Driving Mechanism in Sewing Machine for Performance Improvement, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2014, pp. 918. ##[42] Erkaya, S., Uzmay, I., A Neural–Genetic (NN–GA) Approach for Optimizing Mechanisms Having Joints with Clearance, Multibody System Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2008, pp. 69 83. ##]
Evaluating the Effect of Operating Conditions on Temperature Variation Rate of Inner Walls and Inside Inflated Air of Pneumatic Tires
2
2
For rolling pneumatic tires, the thermal induced effects are mainly resulted from the viscoelastic behaviour of rubber parts and dissipation of stores strain energy during the cyclic deformations. It is noted that the operating conditions crucially contribute to the rubber hysteresis effect and temperature development in a rolling tire. In the current study, an elaborated 3D FE model is worked up for simulating the certain inflation pressure, loading and velocity conditions for a specified radial tire. Special emphasis is given to transient temperature distribution of interior walls and tire cavities as critical zones. Compared with the experimental tests, the current study gives satisfactory results for the time rate of change in the temperature of tire walls and inside inflated air.
1

45
53


Moslem
Namjoo
Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems,
Faculty of Agricultural, University of Jiroft Iran.
Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems
Iran
m.namjoo@shirazu.ac.ir


Hossein
Golbakhshi
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Jiroft, Iran.
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty
Iran
golbakhshi@ujiroft.ac.ir


Farhad
Khoshnam
Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems,
Faculty of Agricultural, University of Jiroft, Iran.
Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems
Iran
f_khoshnam@ujiroft.ac.ir


Ahmad
Soleimani
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Jiroft, Iran.
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty
Iran
a.soleimani@ujiroft.ac.ir
Finite element method
Interior Temperature
Rolling Tire
Transient Thermal Analysis
[[1] Srirangam, S., Anupam, K., Scarpas, A., and Kasbergen, C., Development of a Thermomechanical Tyre–Pavement Interaction Model, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 8, 2015, pp. 721729. ##[2] Sokolov, S., Analysis of the Heat State of Pneumatic Tires by the Finite Element Method, Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2009, pp. 310314. ##[3] Ghoreishy, M. H. R., Finite Element Analysis of a 6.4514 Bias Tire Under Contact Load, Iranian Polymer Journal, Vol. 10, 2001, pp. 4552. ##[4] Liu, C. s., Adhesion Coefficient of Automobile Tire and Road Surface, Journal of Central South University of Technology, Vol. 15, 2008, pp. 210214. ##[5] Behnke, R., Kaliske, M., ThermoMechanically Coupled Investigation of Steady State Rolling Tires by Numerical Simulation and Experiment, International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics, Vol. 68, 2015, pp. 101131. ##[6] Kramer, O., Hvidt, S., and Ferry, J., Science and Technology of Rubber, ed. Mark James, E., Erman, b. and Eirich Frederick, R., Academic Press, New York, Vol. 222, 1994. ##[7] Koštial, P., Mokryšová, M., Šišáková, J., Mošková, Z., and Rusnáková, S., A System to Measure Both Inner and Outer Car Tire Temperatures “in situ”, International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2009, pp. 334340. ##[8] Ebbott, T., Hohman, R., Jeusette, J. P., and Kerchman, V., Tire Temperature and Rolling Resistance Prediction with Finite Element Analysis, Tire Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1999, pp. 221. ##[9] LaClair, T. J., Zarak, C., Truck Tire Operating Temperatures on Flat and Curved Test Surfaces, Tire Science and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2005, pp. 156178. ##[10] Lin, Y. J., Hwang, S. J., Temperature Prediction of Rolling Tires by Computer Simulation, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 67, No. 3, 2004, pp. 235249. ##[11] Wang, Z., Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical and Temperature Field for a Rolling Tire (PDF), 2010. ##[12] Kondé, A., Rosu, I., Lebon, F., Brardo, O., and Devésa, B., Thermomechanical Analysis of an Aircraft Tire in Cornering Using Coupled Ale and Lagrangian Formulations, Open Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2013, pp. 191205. ##[13] Narasimha Rao, K., Kumar, R. K., Bohara, P., and Mukhopadhyay, R., A Finite Element Algorithm for the Prediction of SteadyState Temperatures of Rolling Tires, Tire Science and Technology, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2006, pp. 195214. ##[14] Wang, Y., Wei, Y., Feng, X., and Yao, Z., Finite Element Analysis of the Thermal Characteristics and Parametric Study of Steady Rolling Tires, Tire Science And Technology, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2012, pp. 201218. ##[15] Tang, T., Johnson, D., Smith, R. E., and Felicelli, S. D., Numerical Evaluation of the Temperature Field of SteadyState Rolling Tires, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2013. ##[16] Golbakhshi, H., Namjoo, M., An Efficient Numerical Scheme for Evaluating the Rolling Resistance of a Pneumatic Tire, International Journal of Automotive Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2015, pp. 10091015. ##[17] Huang, M., Li, Z., and Xia, Y., The Interior Temperature Distribution Measurement in a Rolling Tire, 2012. ##[18] Holzapfel, G. A., On Large Strain Viscoelasticity: Continuum Formulation and Finite Element Applications to Elastomeric Structures, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 39, No. 22, 1996, pp. 39033926. ##[19] Rivlin, R. S., Saunders, D., Large Elastic Deformations of Isotropic Materials. VII. Experiments on the Deformation of Rubber, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 243, No. 865, 1951, pp. 251288. ##[20] Alkan, V., Karamihas, S., and Anlas, G., Finite Element Modeling of Static Tire Enveloping Characteristics, International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2011, pp. 529535. ##[21] Cho, J., Choi, J., and Kim, Y., Abrasive Wear Amount Estimate for 3D Patterned Tire Utilizing Frictional Dynamic Rolling Analysis, Tribology International, Vol. 44, No. 7, 2011, pp. 850858. ##[22] Park, H., Youn, S., Song, T., and Kim, N., Analysis of Temperature Distribution in a Rolling Tire Due to Strain Energy Dissipation, Tire Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1997, pp. 214228. ##]
Thermal Optimization of an Array of NeedleShaped using Constructal Theory
2
2
In the present paper, the constructal theory is employed to determine the optimal configuration of three rows of needleshaped fins. The heat transfer across the fins is due to laminar forced convection. Second order upwind scheme is used for discretization of the diffusion terms of governing equations. The pressure–velocity coupling is performed using the SIMPLE algorithm. The heat transfer is optimized subject to constant fin volume. The effect of Reynolds number and thermal conductivity on the optimal configuration is investigated. The results obtained from the present simulations are in good agreement with the numerical results. The results show that pin–fins flow structure leads to the best performance when the pin–fin diameters and heights are nonuniform. At Re = 100 and 200, the optimal value of is 1.3. It is revealed that at Re = 50, the optimal value for is approximately 1.1. The results demonstrate that heat transfer rate is an increasing function of the Reynolds number.
1

55
61


Maryam
Hoseinzadeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrekord University, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrekord
Iran
m72.9843@gmail.com


Afshin
Ahmadi Nadooshan
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrekord University, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrekord
Iran
ahmadi@eng.sku.ac.ir


Morteza
Bayareh
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrekord University, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrekord
Iran
m.bayareh@eng.sku.ac.ir
Constructal Theory
Forced Convection
NeedleShaped Fins
optimization
Reynolds Number
[[1] Incropera, F. P., DeWitt D. P. Introduction to Heat Transfer. J. Wiley & Sons, 1990. ##[2] Almogbel, M., Bejan, A., Cylindrical Trees of Pin Fins, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 43, No. 23, 2000, pp. 42854297. ##[3] BelloOchende, T., Meyer, J. P., and Bejan, A., Constructal MultiScale Pin–Fins, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 53, No. 13, 2010, pp. 27732779. ##[4] Yang, A., Chen, L., Xie, Z., Feng, H., and Sun, F., Constructal Heat Transfer Rate Maximization for Cylindrical PinFin Heat Sinks, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 108, 2016, pp. 427425. ##[5] BelloOchende, T., Bejan, A., Constructal MultiScale Cylinders in CrossFlow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 48, No. 7, 2005, pp. 13731383. ##[6] Page, L. G., BelloOchende, T., and Meyer, J. P., Constructal Multi Scale Cylinders with Rotation Cooled by Natural Convection, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2013, pp. 345355. ##[7] Olakoyejo, O. T., Meyer, J. P., Numerical Optimization of Square PinFins for Minimum Thermal Resistance with NonUniform Design Dimensions, International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 14–16 July, 2014. ##[8] Goshayeshi, H. R., Vafa Toroghi, R., An Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer of Free Convection on Triangular Fins in Order to Optimize the Arrangement of Fins, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 152160. ##[9] Goodarzian, H., Sahebi, S. A., Shobi, M. O., and Safaee, J., A Collocation Solution on the Optimization of Straight Fin with Combined Heat and Mass Transfer, International Journal of Physical Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2011, pp. 22682275. ##[10] RubioJimenez, C. A., Kandlikar, S. G., and HernandezGuerrero, A., Numerical Analysis of Novel Micro Pin Fin Heat Sink with Variable Fin Density, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 2, No.5, 2012, pp. 825833. ##[11] Salimpour, M. R., Sharifhasan, M., and Shirani, E., Constructal Optimization of Microchannel Heat Sinks with Noncircular Cross Sections, Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 10, 2013, pp. 863874. ##[12] Jadhav, R. S., Balaji, C., Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Vertical Channel with Detached PinFin Arrays Arranged in Staggered Manner on Two Opposite Endwalls, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 105, 2016, pp. 5774. ##]
Investigating Cooling Effect with Compound Angle on the Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature
2
2
Increasing the temperature of the turbine entrance gases increases the efficiency of the gas turbine cycle. Under these conditions, the combustion chamber wall temperature also increases, while there is no high temperature resistance alloy fitted with air motors. Therefore, it is necessary to use cooling methods to reduce the wall temperature. In this study, the cooling effect with compound angles investigated on the combustion chamber wall temperature. The threedimensional combustion chamber kɛ is modelled under the conditions of the input speed and the turbulence model in the ANSYS Fluent software. Inlet air is injected from the cooled holes to the mainstream with compound angle, where the cooling flow angle is constant with the 30° horizontally, and the lateral angle changes from Beta =0 up to Beta=60 degrees. The combustion chamber has two flat planes and two sloping plates, in which the arrangement of cooling holes is different. The results show that this method better distributes the cooling air on the wall surface and covers the space between the cooling holes, especially on flat plates. With this method, the number of cooling holes and the amount of air used to cooling can be reduced.
1

63
73


Mohamad Reza
Nazari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malek Ashtar University,
of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malek
Iran
nazarireza1369@gmail.com


Behrooz
Shahriari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malek Ashtar University,
of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malek
Iran
shahriari@mutes.ac.ir


Farhad
Sebghatollahi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malek Ashtar University,
of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malek
Iran
farhadsebghatollahy@gmail.com
Combustion Chamber
Compound Angle
Film Cooling
Wall Temperature
[[1] Lefebvre, Arthur, H., Gas Turbine Combustion, 3rd ed. CRC press, New York, 2010. ##[2] Atul, K., Bogard, D. G., Adiabatic Effectiveness, Thermal Fields, and Velocity Fields for Film Cooling with Large Angle Injection, Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 119, No. 2, 1997, pp. 352358. ##[3] Foster, N. W., Lampard, D., The Flow and Film Cooling Effectiveness Following Injection through a Row of Holes, Journal of Engineering for Power, Vol. 102, No. 3, 1980, pp. 584588. ##[4] Xiao, L., Zheng, H., Influence of Deflection Hole Angle on Effusion Cooling in a Real Combustion Chamber Condition, Thermal Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2015, pp. 645656. ##[5] Koc, I., Parmaksızoglu, C., and Cakan, M., Numerical Investigation of Film Cooling Effectiveness on the Curved Surface, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 47, No. 910, 2006, pp. 12311246. ##[6] Goldstein, R. J., Jin, P., Film Cooling Downstream of a Row of Discrete Holes with Compound Angle, Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 123 No. 2, 2001, pp. 222230. ##[7] Gustafsson, K. M., Johansson, T. G., An Experimental Study of Surface Temperature Distribution on EffusionCooled Plates, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 123, No. 2, 2001, pp. 308316. ##[8] Hay, N., Lampard, D., and Saluja, C. L., Effects of Cooling Films on the Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Flat Plate with Zero Mainstream Pressure Gradient, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 107, No. 1, 1985, pp. 105110. ##[9] Ammari, H. D., Hay, N., and Lampard, D., The Effect of Density Ratio on the Heat Transfer Coefficient from a FilmCooled Flat Plate, Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 112, No. 3, 1990, pp. 444450. ##[10] Hale, C. A., Plesniak, M. W., and Ramadhyani, S., Film Cooling Effectiveness for Short Film Cooling Holes Fed by a Narrow Plenum, Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 122, No. 3, 2000, pp. 553557. ##[11] Maiteh, B. Y., Jubran, B. A., Effect of Pressure Gradient on Film Cooling Effectiveness from Two Rows of Simple and Compound angle holes in combination, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 45, No. 910, 2004, pp. 14571469. ##[12] Jubran, B., Brown, A., Film Cooling from Two Rows of Holes Inclined in the Streamwise and Spanwise Directions, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 107, No. 1 1985, pp. 8491. ##[13] Ligrani, P. M., Wigle, J. M., Ciriello, S., and Jackson, S. M., FilmCooling from Holes with Compound Angle Orientations: Part 1Results Downstream of Two Staggered Rows of Holes with 3d Spanwise Spacing, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 116, No. 2, 1994, pp. 341352. ##[14] Schmidt, D. L., Sen, B., and Bogard, D. G., Film Cooling with Compound Angle Holes: Adiabatic Effectiveness, Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 118, No. 4 1996, pp. 807813. ##[15] Baldauf, S. A., Scheurlen, M., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., Correlation of Film Cooling Effectiveness from Thermographic Measurements at Engine Like Conditions, ASME Turbo Expo 2002: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, pp. 149162. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2002. ##[16] Vakil, Suresh, S., and Thole, K. A., Flow and Thermal Field Measurements in a Combustor Simulator Relevant to a Gas Turbine AeroEngine”, ASME Turbo Expo 2003, Collocated with the 2003 International Joint Power Generation Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003, pp. 215224. ##[17] E. Kianpour, Nor Azwadi, E., Sidik, C. S., and Agha Seyyed Mirza Bozorg, M., Thermodynamic Analysis of Flow Field at the end of Combustor Simulator, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 61, 2013, 389396. ##]
Pareto Optimum Design of Heat Exchangers based on the Imperialist Competitive Algorithm: A Case Study
2
2
In this paper, the multiobjective optimum design of shell and tube heat exchangers is investigated. A thermal modelling of an industrial shell and tube heat exchanger is performed using an NTU method for estimating the shell side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. The efficiency and total cost (includes the capital investment for the equipment and operating cost) are two important parameters in the design of heat exchangers. The fixed parameters and the ranges of the design variables are obtained from a shell and tube recovery heat exchanger in Barez tire production factory located in Kerman city, Iran. The Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is used to find the optimal design parameters to achieve the maximum thermal efficiency and minimum consumption cost as the objective functions. The tube inside and outside diameters, tube length and the number of tubes are considered as four design variables. Furthermore, the effects of changing the values of the design variable on the objective functions are independently investigated. At the end, the obtained Pareto front and the related design variables and their corresponding objective functions are presented.
1

75
82


Mohammadjavad
Mahmoodabadi
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan
Iran
mahmoodabadi@sirjantech.ac.ir


Soodeh
Zarnegar
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sirjan
Iran
soodehz506@gmail.com
Imperialist Competitive algorithm
Multiobjective optimization
Shell
Tube Heat Exchangers
[[1] Costa, L. H., Queiroz, M., Design Optimization of ShellandTube Heat Exchangers, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 28, 2008, pp. 17981805. ##[2] Ramananda Rao, K., Shrinivasa, U., and Srinivasan, J., Synthesis of Cost Optimal Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1991, pp. 4755. ##[3] PonceOrtega, J. M., SernaGonzalez, M., SalcedoEstrada, L. I., and JimenezGutierrez, A., MinimumInvestment Design of Multiple Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Using a MINLP Formulation, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Vol. 84, No. 10, 2006, pp. 905910. ##[4] PonceOrtega, J. M., SernaGonzalez, M., and JimenezGutierrez, A., Use of Genetic Algorithms for the Optimal Design of ShellandTube Heat Exchangers, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 29, 2009, pp. 203209. ##[5] Agarwal, A., Gupta, S. K., Jumping Gene Adaptations of NSGAII and their Use in the MultiObjective Optimal Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Vol. 86, 2008, pp. 123139. ##[6] Sanaye, S., Hajabdollahi, H., MultiObjective Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 30, 2010, pp. 19371945. ##[7] Taborek, J., Industrial Heat Exchanger Design Practices, Wiley, New York, 1991. ##[8] Kakac, S., Liu, H., Heat Exchangers Selection Rating, and Thermal Design, CRC Press, New York, 2000. ##[9] Shah, R. K., Sekulic, P., Fundamental of Heat Exchanger Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2003. ##[10] Taal, M., Bulatov, I., Klemes, J., and Stehlik, P., Cost Estimation and Energy Price Forecasts for Economic Evaluation of Retrofit Projects, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 23, 2003, pp. 18191835. ##[11] Caputo, A. C., Pelagagge, P. M., and Salini, P., Heat Exchanger Design based on Economic Optimization, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 28, 2008, pp. 11511159. ##[12] AtashpazGargari, E., Lucas, C., Imperialist Competitive Algorithm: an Algorithm for Optimization Inspired by Imperialistic Competition, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2007, pp. 4661–4666. ##[13] NazariShirkouhi, S., Eivazy, H., Ghodsi, R., Rezaie, K., and AtashpazGargari, E., Solving the Integrated Product MixOutsourcing Problem by a Novel MetaHeuristic Algorithm: Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 37, No. 12, 2010, pp. 7615–7626. ##[14] Mahmoodabadi, M. J., Taherkhorsandi, M., and Talebipour, M., Adaptive Robust PID Sliding Control of a Liquid Level System based on MultiObjective Genetic Algorithm Optimization, Journal of Control and Cybernetics, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2017, pp. 227246. ##[15] Mahmoodabadi, M. J., Nemati, A. R., A Novel Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Global Optimization of Mathematical Test Functions and Realworld Problems, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2016, pp. 20022021. ##[16] Mahmoodabadi, M. J., Taherkhorsandi, M., Optimal Robust Design of Slidingmode Control based on MultiObjective Particle Swarm Optimization for Chaotic Uncertain Problems, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2017, pp. 115126. ##[17] Farokhi, A., Mahmoodabadi, M. J., Optimal Fuzzy Inverse Dynamics Control of a Parallelogram Mechanism based on a New MultiObjective PSO, Cogent Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2018, pp. 120. ##[18] AtashpazGargari, E., Rajabioun, R., Hashemzadeh, F., and Salmasi, F. R., A Decentralized PID Controller based on Optimal Shrinkage of Gershgorin Bands and PID Tuning Using Colonial Competitive Algorithm, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Vol. 5, 2009, pp. 3227–3240. ##[19] Sepehri Rad, H., Lucas, C., Application of Imperialistic Competition Algorithm in Recommender Systems, In Proceedings of the 13th Int'l CSI Computer Conference, Kish Island, Iran, 2008. ##[20] Jasour, A., AtashpazGargari, E., and Lucas, C., Vehicle Fuzzy Controller Design Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, Second Iranian Joint Congress on Fuzzy and Intelligent Systems, Mashhad, Iran, 2008. ##[21] Khabbazi, A., AtashpazGargari, E., and Lucas, C., Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for Minimum Bit Error Rate Beam Forming, International Journal of BioInspired Computation, Vol. 1, 2009, pp. 125–133. ##[22] Alikhani Koupaei, J., Abdechiri, M., An Optimization Problem for Evaluation of Image Segmentation Methods, International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2010, pp. 142149. ##[23] Sayadnavard, M. H., Haghighat, A. T., and Abdechiri, M., Wireless Sensor Network Localization Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, 2010. ##[24] Jolai, F., Sangari, M., and Babaie, M., Pareto Simulated Annealing and Colonial Competitive Algorithm to Solve an Offline Scheduling Problem with Rejection, Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 224, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1119–1131. ##[25] Shokrollahpour, E., Zandieh, M., and Dorri, B., A Novel Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for BiCriteria Scheduling of the Assembly Flowshop Problem, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 49, No. 11, 2011, pp. 30873103. ##[26] Forouharfard, S., Zandieh, M., An Imperialist Competitive Algorithm to Schedule of Receiving and Shipping Trucks in CrossDocking Systems, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 51, No. 9, 2010, pp. 11791193. ##[27] Karimi, N., Zandieh, M., and Najafi, A. A., Group Scheduling in Flexible Flow Shops: A Hybridised Approach of Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and ElectromagneticLike Mechanism, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 49, No. 16, 2011, 49654977. ##[28] Bagher, M., Zandieh, M., and Farsijani, H., “Balancing of Stochastic UType Assembly Lines: an Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2010, pp. 271285. ##[29] Sarayloo, F., TavakkoliMoghaddam, R., Imperialistic Competitive Algorithm for Solving a Dynamic Cell Formation Problem with Production Planning, Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 6215, 2010, pp. 266–276. ##[30] Piroozfard, H., Wong, K. Y., An Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling Problems, IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, (IEEM), 2014, pp. 69–73. ##[31] BiabangardOskouyi, A., AtashpazGargari, E., Soltani, N., and Lucas, C., Application of Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for Material Properties Characterization from Sharp Indentation Test, International Journal of Engineering Simulation, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2009, pp. 18. ##[32] Yousefi, M., Mohammadi, H., Second Law Based Optimization of a Plate Fin Heat Exchanger Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, International Journal of the Physical Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 20, 2011, pp. 4749–4759. ##[33] Mousavi Rad, S. J., Akhlaghian Tab, F., and Mollazade, K., Application of Imperialist Competition Algorithm for Feature Selection: a Case Study on Rice Classification, International Journal of Computer Application, Vol. 40, No. 16, 2012, pp. 4148. ##[34] Lucas, C., NasiriGheidari, Z., and Tootoonchian, F., Application of an Imperialist Competitive Algorithm to the Design of a Linear Induction Motor, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 51, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1407–1411. ##[35] Movahhedi, O., Salmasi, F. R., Optimal Design of Propulsion System with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller for a PHEV based on NonDominated Sorting Genetic and Colonial Competitive Algorithms International Review of Automatic Control, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2009, pp. 445–451. ##[36] Niknam, T., Taherian Fard, E., Pourjafarian, N., and Rousta, A., An Efficient Hybrid Algorithm based on Modified Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and KMeans for Data Clustering, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2011 pp. 306–317. ##[37] Mozafari, H., Abdi, B., and Ayob, A., Optimization of Transmission Conditions for Thin Interphase Layer Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2010, pp. 2486–2490. ##[38] Arora, J. S., Introduction to Optimum Design, Fourth Edition, Academic Press. ##[39] Mahmoodabadi, M. J., Taherkhorsandi, M., and Bagheri, A., Optimal Robust Sliding Mode Tracking Control of a Biped Robot based on Ingenious Multiobjective PSO, Neurocomputing, Vol. 124, 2014, pp. 194–209. ##[40] Bisheban, M., Mahmoodabadi, M. J., Pareto Optimal Design of Decoupled Sliding Mode Control based on a New MultiObjective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm, Amirkabir International Journal of Science & Research (Modeling, Identification, Simulation & Control), Vol. 45, No. 2, 2013, pp. 31 40. ##]
ThermalHydraulic Analysis of Helical Coil Steam Generator of MultiApplication Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) Test Loop using Drift Flux Model
2
2
The MultiApplication Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) test loop has been built as a proof of concept for SMRs that is scaled down in size and has electric heater rods instead of a nuclear core. In this paper with using DriftFlux Model (DFM), the thermalhydraulic analysis of helical steam generator in MASLWR under steadystate conditions is simulated. This simulation is performed using the finite volume method. To ensure the accuracy and stability of solutions, User Defined Function (UDF) is written in C programming language. Distributions of velocities, local void fractions, temperature and pressure in the steam generator are calculated in different heights. To validate this simulation, the calculated primary side and secondary bulk fluid temperature are compared with experimental data. The experimental data have been provided by series of measurements of parameters of heattransfer agent at Oregon State University. The calculated data are in good agreement with measured data and consequently the accuracy of this simulation is satisfied. Accuracy of the prediction shows that it is possible to use the DFM for thermalhydraulic analysis in advanced models in nuclear power plant and other industries.
1

83
91


Mansour
Talebi
Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Iran
Nuclear Science & Technology Research
Iran
mstalebi@aeoi.org.ir


Valiyolah
Ghazanfari
Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Iran
Nuclear Science & Technology Research
Iran
ghazanfari@yahoo.com
Drift Flux Model
Helical Coil Steam Generator
MASLWR Reactor
Thermal–Hydraulic
[[1] Cooper, M., Small Modular Reactors and the Future of Nuclear Power in the United States, Energy Research & Social Science, Vol. 3, 2014, pp. 161177. ##[2] Reyes, J., Lorenzini, J., NuScale Power: A Modular, Scalable Approach to Commercial Nuclear Power. Nuclear News, Nuclear News, Vol. 6, 2012, pp. 97103. ##[3] Status of Small Reactor Designs without Onsite Refueling, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Vienna, 2007. ##[4] NuScale Power, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1221/ML12216A392.pdf. ##[5] Ingersoll, D., NuScale Small Modular Reactor for CoGeneration of Electricity and Water, Desalination, Vol. 34, 2014, pp. 8493. ##[6] NuScale Power Modular and Scalable Reactor, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Downloadable/aris/2013/26.NuScale.pdf. ##[7] Lorenzo, S., Cioncolini, A., Lombardi, C., and Ricotti, M., TwoPhase Pressure Drops in a Helically Coiled Steam Generator, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 51, 2008, pp. 4926–4939. ##[8] Colorado, D., Papini, D., Hernández, J., Santini, L., and Ricotti, M., Development and Experimental Validation of a Computational Model for a Helically Coiled Steam Generator, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 50, 2011, pp. 569580. ##[9] HeeKyung, K., Hyoung, S., Chung, Y., and Kim, H., ThermalHydraulic Analysis of SMART Steam Generator Tube Rupture Using TASS/SMRS Code, Annals of Nuclear Energy, Vol. 55, 2013, pp. 331340. ##[10] Mascaria, F., Vellaa, G., Woodsb, B., Welterc, K., Pottorfc, J., and Youngc, E., Sensitivity Analysis of the MASLWR Helical Coil Steam Generator Using TRACE, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 241, 2011, pp. 1137–1144. ##[11] Bradyn, J., Comparative Analysis of the Zukauskas Method and Data from the OSU MASLWR Test Facility Steam Generator, 2014. ##[12] Ghazanfari, V., Ansarifar, G., and Esteki, M., Drift Flux Modeling of the VVER1000 Horizontal Nuclear Steam Generator, Progress in Nuclear Energy, Vol. 76, 2014, pp. 3643. ##[13] Ishii, M., Hibiki, T., ThermoFluid Dynamics of TwoPhase Flow, Springer, 2006. ##[14] Hibiki, T., Ishii, M., One Dimensional DriftFlux Model and Constitutive Equations for Related Motion Between Phases in Various TwoPhase Flow Regimes, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 46, 2003, pp. 4935 4948. ##]
Dynamic Modelling and Control of a Dielectric Elastomer Actuator with Two Degrees of Freedom
2
2
Dielectric elastomer actuators are capable of creating multi degrees of freedom in a single joint. In this paper, a doublecone dielectric elastomer actuator is assumed as a planar joint with two degrees of freedom. Because of theoretical complexities, mathematical formulation of dynamic equations is too complicated. To obtain the dynamic equations of motion, at first, experimental charts are used. At this stage forms of relations between displacements, voltages, forces and moments are proposed, and coefficients are optimized to keep the difference between experimental and estimated charts in minimum. Then dynamic equations of motion are derived based on NewtonEuler method, and statespace form of equations of the joint are obtained. As a second objective, joint stabilization around working point is considered. To stabilize the joint against external loads, or initial dislocations, a regulator controller is designed. The joint is over actuated. So using constraint equations, control rule is extracted and simulated. Simulations show successful performance around the working point.
1

93
99


yaser
hesari
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Science
Iran
yhesary2006@gmail.com


Shahram
Etemadi Haghighi
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Science
Iran
setemadi@srbiau.ac.ir
Dielectric elastomer actuator
Electro active cone membrane actuator
Lyapunov controller
[[1] Jung, K., Kim, K. J. and Choi, H. R., A SelfSensing Dielectric Elastomer Actuator, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 143, No. 2, pp. 343351. ##[2] Koo, J. C., Choi, H. R., Jung, M. Y., Jung, K. M., Nam, J. D. and Lee, Y. K., Design and Control of ThreeDOF Dielectric Polymer Actuator, Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 297, 2005, pp. 665670. ##[3] He, T., Zhao, X. and Suo, Z., Equilibrium and Stability of Dielectric Elastomer Membranes Undergoing Inhomogeneous Deformation, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, No. 8, 083522, pp. 128. ##[4] He, T., Cui, L., Chen, C. and Suo, Z., Nonlinear Deformation Analysis of a Dielectric Elastomer Membrane–Spring System, Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 19, No. 8, 085017, pp. 17. ##[5] Luan, Y., Wang, H. and Zhu, Y., Design and Implementation of Cone Dielectric Elastomer Actuator with DoubleSlider Mechanism, Journal of Bionic Engineering, Vol. 7, 2010, pp. S212S217. ##[6] Conn, A. T., Rossiter, J., Antagonistic Dielectric Elastomer Actuator for BiologicallyInspired Robotics, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, Vol. 7976, 2011, pp. 79761Z179761Z10. ##[7] He, T., Miao, G. and Chen, C., The Effect of Pre Stretch on the Performance of a Dielectric Elastomer Membrane, Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE), Jun. 2011, pp. 64636467. ##[8] Conn, A. T., Rossiter, J., Towards Homonymic ElectroElastomer Actuators with Six Degrees of Freedom, Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 21, No. 3, 035012, pp. 19. ##[9] Branz, F., Sansone, F. and Francesconi, A., Design of an Innovative Dielectric Elastomer Actuator for Space Applications, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, Vol. 9056, 2014, pp. 90560Z190560Z10. ##[10] Branz, F., Antonello, A., Carron, A., Carli, R. and Francesconi, A., Kinematics and Control of Redundant Robotic Arm Based on Dielectric Elastomer Actuators, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, Vol. 9430, 2015, 943023, pp. 113. ##[11] Branz, F., Francesconi, A., Modelling and Control of DoubleCone Dielectric Elastomer Actuator, Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 095040. ##[12] Wang, P., Conn, A. T., Elastic Cube Actuator with Six degrees of Freedom Output, Actuators Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 203216. ##[13] Nguyen, C. T., Phung, H., Nguyen, T. D., Jung, H. and Choi, H. R., MultipleDegreesof Freedom Dielectric Elastomer Actuators for Soft Printable Hexapod Robot, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 267, 2017, pp. 505516. ##[14] Hau, S., York, A. and Seelecke, S., Performanc Eprediction of Circular Dielectric ElectroActive Polymers Membrane Actuators with Various Geometries, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), Vol. 9430, 2015, pp. 94300C1 94300C8. ##]
Optimal Swing up of Double Inverted Pendulum using Indirect Method
2
2
In this paper, optimal swing up of a double inverted pendulum (DIP) with two underactuated degrees of freedom (DOFs) is solved using the indirect solution of optimal control problem. Unlike the direct method that leads to an approximate solution, the proposed indirect method results in an exact solution of the optimal control problem, but suffers from its limited convergence domain which makes it difficult to solve. In order to overcome this problem, an inversionbased method is used to obtain the required initial solution for the indirect method. In the proposed methodology, dynamic equations are derived for a general inverted pendulum using EulerLagrange formulation. Then the necessary optimality conditions are derived for a DIP on the cart using the Pontryagin’s maximum principle (PMP). The obtained equations establish a twopoint boundary value problem (TPBVP) which solution results in optimal trajectories of the cart and pendulums. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the presented method, a simulation study is performed for a DIP. The simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed method in terms of reduced effort.
1

101
108


Maral
Salehi
Faculty of Mathematics, Statistics and computer Science,
Semnan University, Iran
Faculty of Mathematics, Statistics and computer
Iran
maralsalehi@semnan.ac.ir


Amin
Nikoobin
Robotics and Control Lab, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Semnan University, Iran
Robotics and Control Lab, Faculty of Mechanical
Iran
anikoobin@semnan.ac.ir


Ebrahim
Shahab
Robotics and Control Lab, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Semnan University, Iran
Robotics and Control Lab, Faculty of Mechanical
Iran
ebrahimshhb@yahoo.com
Boundary Value Problem
Inverted Pendulum
Optimal Swing up
Indirect Method
[[1] Graichen, K., Treuer, M., and Zeitz, M., Swingup of the Double Pendulum on a Cart by Feedforward and Feedback Control with Experimental validation, Automatica, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2007, pp. 6371. ##[2] Bettayeb, M., Boussalem, C., Mansouri, R., and AlSaggaf, U., Stabilization of an Inverted PendulumCart System by Fractional PIState Feedback, ISA Transactions, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2014, pp. 508516. ##[3] Astrom, K. J., Furuta, K., Swinging up a Pendulum by Energy Control, Automatica, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2000, pp. 287295. ##[4] Aracil, J., Gordillo, F., A Family of Smooth Controllers for Swinging up a Pendulum, Automatica, Vol. 44, No. 7, 2008, pp. 18411848. ##[5] Wang, J. J., Stabilization and Tracking Control of X–Z Inverted Pendulum with SlidingMode Control, ISA Transactions, Vol. 51, No. 6, 2012, pp. 763770. ##[6] Gluck, T., Eder, A., and Kugi, A., Swingup Control of a Triple Pendulum on a Cart with Experimental Validation, Automatica, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2013, pp. 801808. ##[7] Adhikary, N., Mahanta, C., Integral Backstepping Sliding Mode Control for Underactuated Systems: Swingup and Stabilization of the Cart–Pendulum System, ISA Transactions, Vol. 52, No. 6, 2013, pp. 870880. ##[8] Cruz, J. D., Leonardi, F., Minimum‐Time Anti‐Swing Motion Planning of Cranes Using Linear Programming, Optimal Control Applications and Methods, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2013, pp. 191201. ##[9] Kahvecioglu, S., Karamancioglu, A., and Yazici, A., Nonlinear Model Predictive Swingup and Stabilizing Sliding Mode Controllers, International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 9, 2009, pp. 10411046. ##[10] Ast, J. M. V., Babuska, R., and Schutter, B. D., Novel ant Colony Optimization Approach to Optimal Control, International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2009, pp. 414434. ##[11] AlJanan, D. H., Chang, H. C., Chen, Y. P., and Liu, T. K., Optimizing the Double Inverted Pendulum’s Performance via the Uniform Neuro Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm, International Journal of Automation and Computing, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2017, pp. 686695. ##[12] Oliver, J. P. O., Sanchez, O. J. S, and Morales, V. L., Toward a Generalized Sub‐Optimal Control Method of Underactuated Systems, Optimal Control Applications and Methods, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2012, pp. 338351. ##[13] Chernousko, F., Reshmin, S., TimeOptimal Swingup Feedback Control of a Pendulum, Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol. 47, No. 13, 2007, pp. 6573. ##[14] Mason, P., Broucke, M., and Piccoli, B., Time Optimal Swingup of the Planar Pendulum, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 53, No. 8, 2008, pp. 18761886. ##[15] Paoletti, P., Genesio, R., Rate Limited Time Optimal Control of a Planar Pendulum, Systems & Control Letters, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2011, pp. 264270. ##[16] Merakeb, A., Achemine, F., and Messine, F., Optimal Time Control to Swingup the Inverted PendulumCart in OpenLoop Form, 11th International Workshop In Electronics, Control, Measurement, Signals and their Application to Mechatronics, 2013, pp. 14. ##[17] Gregory, J., Olivares, A., and Staffetti, E., Energy‐Optimal Trajectory Planning for the Pendubot and the Acrobot, Optimal Control Applications and Methods, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2013, pp. 275295. ##[18] Horibe, T., Sakamoto, N., Optimal Swing up and Stabilization Control for Inverted Pendulum via Stable Manifold Method, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2018, pp. 708715. ##[19] Nikoobin, A., Moradi, M., and Esmaili, A., Optimal Spring Balancing of Robot Manipulators in PointtoPoint Motion, Robotica, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2013, pp. 611621. ##[20] Korayem, M. H., Vatanjou, H., and Azimirad, V., New Hierarchical Method for Path Planning of LargeScale Robots, Latin American Applied Research, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2011, pp. 225232. ##[21] Hull, D. G., Sufficiency for Optimal Control Problems Involving Parameters, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Vol. 97, No. 3, 1998, pp. 579590. ##]