Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Investigating the Reason for Compressor Gearbox Gear Failure in Arfa Iron and Steel Company using Analytical and Fracture Studies
1
13
EN
Mahdi
Ebrahimzadeh
Modern Manufacturing Technologies Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
m.ebrahimzadeh@smc.iaun.ac.ir
Ali
Galehdari
Modern Manufacturing Technologies Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
ali.galehdari@gmail.com
Given the application of gears in various industries including steel industries, studying the reasons for facture in gears before reaching the end of their lifetime is of great importance. In this study, a gearbox was investigated which included a gear and a pinion. After four years of use, the teeth of gear and pinion along with the shaft attached to the gear were fractured. The fracture had occurred suddenly and with a lot of noise. The fracture in gear and pinion were in the teeth while the fracture in shaft occurred in the keyway. At the beginning of the study, shaft and gear design equations were used to evaluate the suitability of each of the parts in the system using theoretical equations and then fracture type was determined using fracture studies and the accuracy of analytical results were determined. In the analytical study, the results showed that the fracture is due to improper design for the gear shaft leading to more than one million unites of load on the shaft leading to cracks in the keyway and misalignment between gears causing fracture. In the fracture studies, the fracture type (ductile and brittle) was determined and the accuracy of analytical results was confirmed. In the numerical results, the distribution of static strain in the fractured shaft and a redesigned shaft are investigated.
Design analysis,Fracture studies,Gearbox,Gear failure
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540800.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540800_4945a4c97a54e6ca272f61dac2be9c9a.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Effect of Burr Grinding on Fatigue Strength of Steel Butt-Welded Connections
15
25
EN
Abbas
Fadaei
Bu-Ali Sina University
as.fadaei@gmail.com
Annette
Betkhoodu
Bu-Ali Sina University
aebetkhoodu@yahoo.com
Among assembling methods, welding is most widely used in various industries. During the welding operation, material is heated to a temperature above the melting point and melted material forms a weld pool. This leads to the formation of tensile residual stresses in the weld toe. In this paper, effect of burr grinding technique on fatigue strength of butt-welded joint has been evaluated. Burr grinding is one of the weld geometry modification methods that with removing small crack-like defects at the weld toe and increasing weld toe radius leads to reduction of stress concentration factor (SCF) and improvement of fatigue strength of weld. Also, the finite element simulation was performed by using ABAQUS software and stress concentration factor was chosen as a criterion. This factor was calculated using analytical and numerical methods for samples before and after grinding. Burr grinding procedure on welded samples was done using an electric grinder and different conical burrs. Burrs with different radii have been selected in order to provide a better comparison. Fatigue life of samples before and after grinding was determined by fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading. The results show 43.72 percent improvement in stress concentration factor and 50.61 percent improvement in fatigue life of samples. In experimental study, the best result belongs to grinding with a 3 mm tapered burr leading to an improvement of 50.61% in fatigue life while grinding with 1 mm tapered gives the worst result of 8.88% improvement in fatigue life.
Burr grinding,Fatigue strength,Stress concentration factor butt weld
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540758.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540758_5528362f1c235181594d5e9c648bc48e.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Development of Thermal and Structural Deformation Model to Predict the Part Build Dimensional Error in Fused Deposition Modeling
27
37
EN
Chockalingam
Kunjan
Thiagarajar college of Engineering, Madurai-15, Tamilnadu.
kcmech@tce.edu
Karthic
M
Thiagarajar college of Engineering, Madurai-15, Tamilnadu.
mkmect@tce.edu
Jawahar
N
Thiagarajar college of Engineering, Madurai-15, Tamilnadu.
jawahartce@tce.edu
The most common extrusion based technology in rapid prototyping is Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). In FDM process, widely used materials are Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate. In this study ABS-P430 material is considered. During the part build process, the rapid heating and cooling is happening on the build part which leads to high thermal gradient. This thermal gradient causes thermal stress; it will lead to deformation of build parts. In this paper a three dimensional transient thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) had been used to find out the maximum principal stress and deformation of the build part. This FEA analysis is called as thermal and structural deformation model or 3D FEA model. In this model, the novel technique called Element birth/death is used in ANSYS11 to mimic the FDM process. The most influencing parameters of FDM process called orientation and layer thickness have been considered in a 3D FEA model to calculate the deformation of a part. To validate the work, a standard design which is considered in 3D FEA model is fabricated using dimension 1200es FDM machine using same orientation and layer thickness and deformation is measured. From the results it was observed that the relative error between 3D FEA model and actual fabricated model is found to be 3-6%. This 3D FEA model would be helpful for RP machine users to find the deformation of the build part before making the products.
Deformation,Deformation model,Fused deposition modeling,Thermal and structural element birth/death function
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540761.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540761_81460251a4abd2c42ac0f36be1be00c4.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Preliminary Analysis of the Cladding Mechanical Behavior of a Nuclear Superheat Boiling Water Reactor
39
45
EN
majid
bahonar
Department of Nuclear Engineering,
Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
majid_bhnr@yahoo.com
Gholamreza
Jahanfarnia
Department of nuclear engineering,science and research branch
rezajahan@yahoo.com
Morteza
Gharib
Department of nuclear engineering,science and research branch
mgharib@yahoo.com
In the present study, investigation of mechanical behaviour of the fuel cladding material for a nuclear superheat Boiling Water Reactor with annular fuel rods, is carried out. In this design, each annular fuel element is cooled internally by steam and externally by water. For the fuel cladding material, radiation embitterment and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) are the most important issues that have to be taken into account. Hence, for cladding, two materials are considered. Preliminary thermal expansion and stress analysis have been done for a fresh (begin of cycle) ASBWR (Annular-fuelled Superheat Boiling Water Reactor) fuel element. The purpose of these analysis is to investigate the stress distribution and thermal expansion of the cladding in the initial phase of operation. The results show that there is a noticeable difference in the axial expansion between the inner and outer claddings. For T91 (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) cladding, the maximum axial thermal growth of the inner cladding is 22.12 mm, which is about 9.7 mm more than the outer cladding. For Inconel 718 cladding, the results are 27.8 mm and 13.4 mm, respectively.
Annular fuel,strain,stress,Superheat BWR,Thermal expansion
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540764.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540764_fe7341b497509a34a77be5069df90052.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Vibration Analysis of 2-PR(Pa)U- 2-PR(Pa)R New Parallel Mechanism
47
56
EN
Mehran
Mahboubkhah
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Tabriz, Iran
mahboobkhah@tabrizu.ac.ir
sajjad
pakzad
university of tabriz
pakzad@tabrizu.ac.ir
Morteza
Homayoun Sadeghi
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Tabriz, Iran
morteza@tabrizu.ac.ir
Mir Mohammad
Ettefagh
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Tabriz, Iran
ettefagh@tabrizu.ac.ir
Parallel kinematic machines, are closed loop structures which have more accuracy, stiffness and ability to withstand high loads. In this paper the vibration equations of the new parallel mechanism, that has higher stiffness because of parallelogram system and fixed length pods, have been derived by analytical approach. Whereas the proposed mechanism is applied as a machine tools, its vibrational behavior investigation has key impact factor. All the kinematic chains of the mechanism have been taken into consideration to achieve the coupled system of equations. To extract mechanism natural frequencies, modal analysis is carried out using three methods including analytical, finite element (FEM) and experimental method on parallel mechanism which has four degrees of freedom including three linear motion along the x, y and z axes and a rotary motion about x axis. Finally the natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained from analytical, experimental and FEM were compared. It is worth noting that all the frequencies obtained from three methods had little differences.
Modal test,Parallel mechanism,Vibration analysis
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540765.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_540765_b3ca6a9517c45aee46641a18914e664b.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
An experimental investigation on comparison the similar and dissimilar resistance spot welding of St12 and galvanized steel by using design of experiments
57
67
EN
Mahmoud
Moradi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
moradi.malayeru@gmail.com
Hadi
Abdollahi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Urmia university of Technology, Urmia, Iran
abdollahi.hadi@yahoo.com
Ali
Khorram
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of KNToosi, Iran
alikhorram@ymail.com
In the present research, similar and dissimilar resistance spot welding (RSW) process of St12 and galvanized steel sheets with thickness of 0.9 mm was investigated. The experiments were carried out based on the statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach to investigate the effect of RSW parameters on the welding quality, achieving the mathematical regression equations and predicting the new results. Welding time and electrode force were considered as the input process variables while the tensile-shear strength of the joints was considered as the process response. By comparing three RSW types, galvanized steel has the highest tensile-shear strength. Statistical analysis shows that tensile-shear strength is increased with increasing electrode force and welding time. Verification experiments for three types of RSW joints were carried out in order to analyse the obtained results via software. Good agreement between the verification tests and the optimization results revealed that the statistical modelling would be appropriate for RSW process. Welding time (T) = 5 s and electrode force (P) = 925 N, welding time (T) = 5 s and electrode force (P) = 1100 N and welding time (T) = 3 s and electrode force (P) = 925 N were obtained as the optimum settings for similar RSW of St12, dissimilar RSW of St12 to galvanized steel and similar RSW of galvanized steel, respectively.
Design of experiments,Dissimilar welding,Optimization,Resistance spot welding,Tensile-Shear strength
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668240.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668240_a97e702dceff9d8afb8fbac9280c99e6.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Experimental investigation of maximum achievable convolution height of metallic bellows in hydroforming process
69
74
EN
Mehdi
Safari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University of Technology
m.safari@arakut.ac.ir
Younes
ghadiri
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University of Technology
yones.ghadiri1367@gmail.com
The manufacturing of metal bellows with high ratios of crown-to-root diameters is very sensitive to design parameters such as internal pressure inside the tube, axial force and movement, die-stroke length (distance of the dies) as well as the initial tube length. In this paper, hydroforming process of a metallic bellows is investigated experimentally. For this purpose, the effects of internal pressure and die stroke on the maximum achievable convolution height and thickness distribution of hydroformed bellows is studied. The experiments are performed with different internal pressures such as 90, 110 and 130 bars and also in different die strokes such as 10, 12 and 14 mm. The results show that by increasing the die stroke, the range of allowable internal pressure to produce a metallic bellows without wrinkling or bursting decreases and manufacturing of the bellows becomes more difficult. It is extracted from results that with holding the die stroke value, very low internal pressures leads to wrinkling in the hydroformed bellows while very high internal pressures cause the excessive thinning. Also, it is concluded that by increasing both internal pressure and die stroke the convolution height of manufactured bellows is increased. It is proved that the maximum thickness reduction is occurred at the crown point of hydroformed bellows.
Convolution height,Hydroforming process,Metallic bellows
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668283.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668283_196b837877d5619be6d64725d8e431ce.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Forecasting operational parameters of a solar space heating system using a novel multistage artificial neural network
75
84
EN
Farnaz
Jamadi
Department of physics, Sirjan university of technology
f_jamadi@sirjantech.ac.ir
Behnam
Jamali
Mechanical engineering, Sirjan University of Technology
jamalib@rocketmail.com
In this study, several operational parameters of a solar energy system are predicted through using a multistage ANN model. To achieve the best design of this model, three different back-propagation learning algorithms, i.e. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), Pola-Riber Conjugate Gradient (CGP) and the Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) are utilized. Further, to validate the ANN results, some experimental tests have been done in winter 2016 on a solar space heating system (SSHS) equipped with a parabolic trough collector (PTC). In the proposed model, ANN comprises three consecutive stages, while the outputs of each one are considered to be the inputs of the next. Results show that the maximum error rate in Stages 1, 2, and 3 has occurred in the LM algorithm with respectively 10, 6, and 10 neurons. Moreover, the best obtained determination coefficient of all stages belongs to the total system efficiency and has the value 0.999934 for LM-10. As a result, the multistage ANN model can simply forecast operational parameters of the solar energy systems with high accuracy.
Multistage neural network,Operational parameters,Solar space heating system,Total system efficiency
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668247.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668247_57c017b67c06b78582b74f14f5e605a9.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
The aerodynamic effects of blade lean on a high-aspect-ratio transonic axial flow rotor
85
93
EN
Mansour
Asghari
asghari@mut-es.ac.ir
Mohsen
Agha Seyed Mirzabozorg
mirzabozorg@mut-es.ac.ir
Mahmood
Adami
adami@mut-es.ac.ir
In this study, the effect of tangential blade lean on the aerodynamic characteristics of low-transonic, high-aspect-ratio axial flow compressor rotor has been investigated by using the computational fluid dynamics. The B-Spline curvature with four control points of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of span have been used to define the blade stacking line. Various leaned rotors have been created by rotating the circumferential position of control points and they have been simulated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). At the best state, the leaned blade improves the adiabatic efficiency and total pressure ratio of compressor about 0.55% and 0.75%, respectively. The results show that, lean angle at 100% span has most effect in the peak adiabatic efficiency rather than lean angle at other control points. Also, the results indicate that, in low-transonic, high-aspect-ratio rotor blades, the tangential change of the stacking line only causes the reduction of secondary flow, while the previous studies on high-transonic low-aspect-ratio rotor blades, such as NASA Rotor 37 and NASA Rotor 67 revealed the movement of shock wave toward the downstream and the reduction of the secondary flow.
Adiabatic efficiency,Axial flow Compressor,CFD,High-Aspect-Ratio,Low-Transonic rotor,Tangentially leaned
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668238.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668238_2927ce8152b9f2bc25066f2bd6df2e29.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Application of Topology Optimization in Design of Stem Profile in Hip Implants Using Finite Element Method
95
101
EN
Mohammad Reza
Niroomand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Payame Noor University, Iran
niroomand@pnu.ac.ir
Farzad
Boroomand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
farzad.b@smc.iaun.ac.ir
Appropriate design of stem shape is an important factor in total hip replacement. It affects the attachment of the implant to the bone and the stability of the implant. Using topology optimization, this study has been an attempt to propose an optimized model of the stem profile of the hip implants. In this regard, a three-dimensional finite element model of the implant has been combined with a stiffness-based topology optimization algorithm to reduce the relative motion between the implant and the bone. The objective function in the optimization problem is the compliance of the structure which should be minimized. Also, a constraint on usable volume is applied to the structure. Then smoothing process has been done on the optimal model to prevent its geometric complexities. Results show that the final model has a smaller weight, less displacement, and more uniform stress distribution. In addition, using conventional production methods, this model can be easily produced.
Finite Element,Hip Implant,Stem Profile Design,Stress Analysis,Topology Optimization
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668255.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668255_0982edcd89076c4a452fe6d5528e50fe.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Novel Aspect of Composite Sandwich Fairing Structure Optimization of a Two Stages Launch Vehicle by Using MDO Independent Subspace Approach
103
111
EN
foozieh
morovat
K.N.Toosi university of technology
f_morovat@yahoo.com
jaafar
roshanian
K.N.Toosi university of technology
roshanian@kntu.ac.ir
ali
mozaffari
K.N.Toosi university of technology
mozaffari@kntu.ac.ir
hadi
zare
department of aerospace engineering
hadi.zaare@yahoo.com
In this paper, a novel composite sandwich structure analysis of Launch Vehicle (LV) fairing is considered and proposed by a new Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) for a two-stage launch vehicle. Accordingly, “Multidisciplinary Design Optimization based on Independent Subspaces” (MDOIS) is employed using the “Fixed Point Iteration” (FPI) method to achieve the best convergence at system level (SL) to segregate the disciplines. Therefore, two proposed subspaces overcome difficulties of common mentioned MDO of LVs. Hence, the first subspace is a MDO which includes propulsion, aerodynamics, weight and trajectory disciplines and the second one, includes the novel composite fairing structure optimization as the other single discipline optimization that considered as a compact problem analytically and numerically and it is one of the novelties of this work. By considering variables as propulsion, trajectory and also composite sandwich fairing structure design regarding to the variables of designing and the performing optimization process, the fairing mass has been reduced more and considerable with respect to the common two stages LVs. In addition, due to the global optimization of LVs this weight reduction caused in reduction of the total gross weight of LVs. This system engineering proves the high sufficiency of MDO in complicated designing and it can be a roadmap for the future space vehicles designers especially who want to consider the composite structure optimization in LVs.
Composite sandwich structure,Fairing,Launch vehicle,MDO,MDOIS,System analysis
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668239.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668239_cba41805c284ada51928b079053940ae.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
The Effects of Joint Clearance on the Dynamics of the 3-RPR Planar Parallel Manipulator
120
113
EN
Seyyed Mojtaba
Varedi-Koulaei
shahrood university of technology
varedi@shahroodut.ac.ir
Mahdi
Bamdad
shahrood university of technology
bamdad@shahroodut.ac.ir
In reality, clearances in the joints are inevitable due to the defects arising from manufacturing process, design tolerances, and wearing after a certain working period. It leads to a chaotic behaviour including the impact loads which results in an unpredictable response in the system. Since clearance introduces an additional uncontrollable degree of freedom to the manipulator, it causes error and could not be neglected in the manipulator design or analysis. In this study, the dynamic behavior of a planar mechanism with revolute joints, in the presence of clearances is investigated. The planar 3-RPR parallel manipulator with six revolute clearance joints is modelled in MSC.ADAMS software and the simulation results are presented. Moreover, the effects of clearance size on the dynamic characteristics of a planar mechanical system are analysed and compared. What is found out is the prediction of the dynamic error due to the joints clearance for this parallel robot.
Dynamic effect,Joint clearance,3RPR Planar parallel manipulator
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668254.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668254_19199e4308e5b5f45abdbc61d2bf5c3f.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Experimental Study on Magnetic Abrasive Honing of Inner Surface of Tube AISI304
121
129
EN
Hamzeh
Shahrajabian
h.shahrajabian@gmail.com
Masoud
Farahnakian
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Najafabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
farahnakian@gmail.com
Payam
Saraeian
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Najafabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
saraeian@yahoo.com
To overcome the limitation of honing process, the present work proposes magnetic abrasive honing (MAH) process whereby abrasive stones are replaced by magnetic abrasives. This process is combination of magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) and honing. MAF which is one of the finishing processes can improve the quality of workpiece surface with various geometries, removing the chips in micrometer scale by magnetic field forces. This study set to apply longitudinal vibration to the tube workpiece in MAF process; hence, this process is called MAH. The effects of rotary speed of workpiece, cross-hatch angle, and mesh number were investigated on the surface roughness of AISI 304. Magnetic abrasives were combination of SiC particles as abrasives and iron particles as ferromagnetic particles in lubricant of SAE 40 oil. The results revealed that the longitudinal movement of workpiece is effective on MAH, as the surface roughness decreased with increasing the cross-hatch angle. Surface roughness decreased with increase of rotary and mesh number. The major changes in surface roughness (58%) were obtained in cross-hatch angle of 45º rotary speed of 800 rpm and mesh size of 400. The microscopic picture showed that three-body wear mechanism is dominant for fine grits.
AISI 304,Honing,Inner surface,Magnetic abrasive,Surface Roughness
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668242.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668242_cdfb2334f9d713377da71ac8db24f940.pdf
Islamic Azad University Majlesi Branch
ADMT Journal
2252-0406
2383-4447
11
2
2018
06
01
Optimization The High Speed Machining of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel Using Vapor Deposited Cutting Tools (Wear and Roughness)
131
139
EN
Mehdi
Jalali Azizpour
Department of Mechanic, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
mahdi.jalali.azizpour@gmail.com
Ata
Fardaghaie
Department of Mechanics, Ahvaz branch
Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
a.aghaie@iauahvaz.ac.ir
In this study, the main cutting parameters of high speed machining (HSM) including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut as well as deposition method were optimized using genetic algorithm considering the average surface roughness (Ra) of work piece and flank wear (V<sub>b</sub>) of CVD and PVD coated tool criteria in high speed turning of hardened AISI 4140 Steel. Standard L<sub>18</sub> orthogonal array has been used for the design of experiment (DOE) applying Taguchi approach. Multiple linear regression model applying Minitab, was used to determine the relationship and interaction between machining parameters and outputs. For genetic algorithm(GA) optimization, the average was applied as a functional output of design of experiments. The results of GA for smaller- the better quality characterization shows the optimum roughness of 1.107 mm and optimum flank wear of 0.461mm. The conﬁrmation tests were carried out in order to validate the response of predicted optimum condition. The results of validation test show a good agreement between obtained optimum condition and the results of genetic algorithm. The analysis of variance was used in order to obtain the contribution of each factor on the output statistically. ANOVA results indicated that the cutting speed and cut depth are the most effective factors on the flank wear by 37.02 and 27.80 percent contribution respectively. The most effective factors on surface roughness were feed rate and cutting speed by 82.49 and 10.50 percent contribution respectively. Stereoscopy and Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the wear mechanism and topography of worn surface.
CVD,Flank wear,genetic algorithm,HSM,PVD,Roughness,Tool wear
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668237.html
http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_668237_96e20109e1fda2db32bb3bdcbe05a428.pdf