Surface roughness of engineering parts is very significant property that effectively influences on the wear and fatigue strength. There are many methods for improving surface quality of engineering parts such as grinding, lapping and honing. One of the methods for improving surface quality is Roller Burnishing. Roller Burnishing improves surface quality of engineering parts by means of Cold working. Roller Burnishing depends on many factors such as RPM of work piece, feed rate of Burnishing tool and the penetration depth of Roller burnishing tool into the work piece. At the present paper, we have tried to investigate the effective factors of Roller Burnishing and optimize them by means of Taguchi approach.