Evaluation of γ-Al2O3/n-decane Nanofluid Performance in Shell and Tube Heat Recovery Exchanger in a Biomass Heating Plant

Document Type : Original Article


1 Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University,Abadan, Iran

2 California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, USA


The performance of a γ-Al2O3/n-decane nanofluid shell-and-tube heat exchanger in a biomass heating plant is analyzed to specify the optimum condition based on the maximum heat transfer rate and performance index for wide range of nanoparticle volume fraction (0–7%). Compared with pure          n-decane, the obtained results in this research show that by using γ-Al2O3/n-decane nanofluid as coolant at optimum values of particle volume concentration for maximum heat transfer rate (ϕ=0.021) and for maximum performance index (ϕ=0.006), the heat transfer rate and pumping power increased by 10.84%, 13.18% and 6.72%, 2.3%, respectively. Increasing particles concentration raises the fluid viscosity, decreases the Reynolds number and consequently decreases the heat transfer coefficient. As a result, determining the optimum value of the particle volume fraction of nanofluid as the working fluid, can improve the performance of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. 


[1]    Choi, S. U. S., Eastman, J. A., “Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles”, in ASME Int. Mechanical Congress and Exposition, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 1995.
[2]    Sarkar, J., “Performance of nanofluid-cooled shell and tube gas cooler in transcritical CO2 refrigeration systems”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2011, Vol. 31, No. 14-15, pp. 2541-2548.
[3]    Mohammed, H. A., Bhaskaran, G., Shuaib, N. H. and Saidur, R., “Influence of nanofluids on parallel flow square microchannel heat exchanger performance”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 2011, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 1-9.
[4]    Saeedinia, M., Akhavan-Behabadi, M. A. and Nasr, M., “Experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop of nanofluid flow in a horizontal coiled wire inserted tube under constant heat flux”, Experimental Thermal Fluid Science, 2012, Vol. 36, pp. 158-168.
[5]    Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. K., and Namburu, P. K., “Numerical study of fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in the flat tubes of a radiator”, International Journal of HeatandFluid Flow, 2010, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 613-621.
[6]    Strandberg, R., Das, Debendra, K., “Finned performance evaluation with nanofluids and convectional heat transfer fluids”, International Journal of Thermal Science, 2010, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 613-621.
[7]    Anthony B., Kuhry, Paul J. Weimer, “Biological/Electrolytic Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbons”, published as US8518680, 2009, US20140038254, Apr 17.
[8]    Yetter, R. A., Risha, G. A. and Son, S. F., “Metal particle combustion and nanotechnology”, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2009, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 1819-1838.
[9]    Jackson, D., Davidson, D. and Hanson, R., “Application of an aerosol shock tube for the kinetic studies of n-dodecane/nano-aluminum slurries”, 2008, in: 44th AlAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Hartford, CT, United States.
[10]  Tyagi, H., Phelan, P. E., Prasher, R., Peck, R., Lee, T., Pacheco, J. R. and Arentzen, P., “Increased hot-plate ignition probability for nanoparticle-laden diesel fuel”, 2008, Nano Letters, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 1410-1416.
[11]  Pak, B. C., Cho, Y. I., “Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles”, Experimental Heat transfer, 1998, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 151-170.
[12]  Xuan, Y., Roetzel, W., “Conceptions of heat transfer correlation of nanofluids”, International Journal of HeatandMass Transfer, 2000, Vol. 43, No. 19, pp. 3701-3707.
[13]  Corcione, M., “Empirical correlating equations for predicting the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids”, Energy Conversion Management, 2011, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 789–793.
[14]  Eduardo, Cao, “Heat transfer in process engineering”, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010.
[15]  Li, Q., Xuan, Y., “Convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of Cu–water nanofluid”, Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 2002, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 408-416.
[16]  Incropera, F. P., DeWitt, D. P., “Introduction to Heat Transfer”, fourth ed. John Wiley and Sons, 2002.
[17]  Esfe, M. H., Saedodin, S. and Mahmoodi, M., “Experimental studies on the convective heat transfer performance and thermophysical properties of MgO-water nanofluid under turbulent flow”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2014, Vol. 52, pp. 68-78.
[18]  Jwo, C. S., Jeng, L. Y., Teng, T. P. and Chen, C. C., “Performance of overall heat transfer in multi-channel heat exchanger by alumina nanofluid”,Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2010, Vol. 504, pp. S385-S388.
[19]  Lelea, D., “The performance evaluation of Al2O3/water nanofluid flow and heat transfer in microchannel heat sink”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2011, Vol. 54, Issue 17-18, pp. 3891-3899.
[20]  Pantzali, M. N., Mouza, A. A. and Paras, S. V., “Investigating the efficacy of nanofluids as coolants in plate heat exchangers (PHE)”, Chemical Engineering Science, 2009, Vol. 64, Issue 14, pp. 3290-3300.
[21]  Kabeel, A. E., Abou El Maaty, T. and El Samadony Y., “The effect of using nano-particles on corrugated plate heat exchanger performance”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2013, Vol. 52, Issue 1, pp. 221-229.
[22]  Tiwari, A. K., Ghosh, P., and Sarkar, J., “Performance comparison of the plate heat exchanger using different nanofluids”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2013, Vol. 49, pp. 141-151.
[23]  Tiwari, A. K., Ghosh, P., and Sarkar, J., “Particle concentration levels of various nanofluids in plate heat exchanger for best performance”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2015, Vol. 89, pp. 1110-1118.