Kinematic Synthesis of a Novel Parallel Cable Robot as Artificial Leg

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Iran

Abstract

Accommodation of mechanism with human being’s physical characteristics creates the possibility of safe and efficient interaction between human being and robot. Regarding the fact that amputation of a limb in human beings causes several mental, economical and social difficulties and problems, need to a substitute limb which has the most efficiency for the person after amputation is a vital need. The cable robots are the kinds of robots that the cable is used instead of rigid link. The cable robots have a simple appearance that some cables connect the motors to the final organ.  In this research a robot with cable mover is designed and modeled as a tool in the case of creating movement with the most accordance for an artificial organ below the knee. In addition, in this mechanism some advantages are also considered including creating movement in two axes, its cheapness and lightness. In this research at first a primary design of the artificial organ is presented. The forward and inverse kinematic relations which are dominant on system are explained, in fact you can find different features with kinematic robots like dexterity, global condition, local condition, etc, and finally we study the available workspace for the system. Workspace in cable robots is different from other parallel robots, in this paper, first description about some methods for finding work­space in cable-driven-robots and then use of force-closure workspace to find workspace for this system are presented. 

Keywords


[1] Kim, Y. C., Park, C. I., Kim, D. Y., Kim, T. S., Shin, J. C., "Statistical analysis of amputations and trends in Korea," Prosthetics and Orthotics International, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1996, pp. 88-95.

[2] Graham, K. Z., Mackenzie, E. J., Ephraim, P. L., Travison, T. G., Brookmeyer, R., "Estimating the prevalence of limb loss in the United States: 2005 to 2050," Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 89, No. 3, 2008, pp. 422-429.

[3] Heck, J. R., "General principles of amputations," Campbell’s Operative Orthopedics, Vol. 1, No. 11, 2008, pp. 561-578.

[4] Adams, P. F., Hendershot, G. E., Marano, M. A., "Current estimates from the national health interview survey 1996," National Center for Health Statistics, No. 200, 1999.

[5] Dillingham, T. R., Pezzin, L. E., Mackenzie, E. J., "Racial differences in the incidence of limb loss secondary to peripheral vascular disease: a population-based study," Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 83, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1252-1257.

[6] Saied, A. R., Heidari, E., Shamsaldini, M., "Causes of amputations performed during a 9-Year period in hospitals affiliated to kerman," Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2012, pp. 260-267. (In Persian)

[7] Dario, F., Ning, J., Hubertus, R., Leš, H. A., Bernhard, G., Hans, D., Aszmann, C. O., "The extraction of neural information from the surface EMG for the control of upper-limb prostheses: Emerging avenues and challenges," IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2014, pp.797-809.

[8] Ernesto, C., Martinez, V., Jeff, W., Elliott, G., Herr, H., "Design of an agonist-antagonist active knee prosthesis," Proceeding of the 2nd Biennial IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 2008.

[9] Ficanha, E. M., Rastgar, M., Mordian, B., Mahmoudian, N., "Ankle angles during step turn and straight walk: implications for the design of a steerable ankle-foot prosthetic robot," Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, October, 2013.

[10] Saber, O., "A spatial translational cable robot," Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2015.

[11] Aghili, F., Buehler, M., Hollerbach, J. M., "Dynamics and control of direct-drive robots with positive joint torque feedback," Proceeding of International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1997, pp. 1156-1161.

[12] Cone, L. L., "Skycam-an aerial robotic camera system," Byte, Vol. 10, No. 10, 1985, pp. 122-132.

[13] Taghirad, H. D., Nahon, M., "Kinematic analysis of a macro–micro redundantly actuated parallel manipulator," Advanced Robotics, Vol. 22, No. 6, 2008, pp. 657-687.

[14] Campbell, P. D., Swaim, P. L., Thompson, C. J., "Charlotte robot technology for space and terrestrial applications," In SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems 25th, San Diego, CA, 1995.

[15] Merlet, J. P., Daney, R., "Modular parallel wire crane for rescue operations," IEEE International Conference Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2010, pp. 2834-2839.

[16] Tadokoro, S., Murao, Y., Hiller, M., Murata, R., Kohkawa, H., Matsushima, T., "A motion base with 6-dof by parallel cable drive architecture," Mechatronics on IEEE/ASME Transactions, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2002, pp. 115-123.

[17] Kawamura, S., Kino, H., Won, C., "High-speed manipulation by using parallel wire-driven robots," Robotica, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2000, pp. 13–21.

[18] Taherifar, A., Salarieh, H., Alasty, A., "Minimum time and minimum switch path planning for a hyper-redundant manipulator with lockable joints," Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2012, pp. 50-65. (In Persian)

[19] Brackbill, E., Mao, Y., Agrawal, S. K., "Dynamics and control of a 4-dof wearable cable-driven upper arm exoskeleton," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Kobe International Conference Center Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 2300-2305.

[20] Bamdad, M., Zarshenas, H., "Robotic rehabilitation with the elbow stiffness adjustability," Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 11, 2014, pp. 151-158.(In Persian)

[21] Bamdad, M., Cable-driven parallel robots: Time-energy optimal trajectory planning of cable-suspended manipulators, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, pp. 41-51.

[22] Jacobsen, S. C., Iversen, E. K., Johnson, R. T., Knutti, D. F., Biggers, K. B., "The design of the Utah/MIT hand," IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, 1986, pp. 1520-1532.

[23] Massie, T., Salisbury, J. K., "The PHANTOM haptic interface: A Device for Probing Virtual Objects," Symposium on haptic interfaces for virtual environment and teleoperator systems, Chicago, IL, Vol. 55, No. 1, 1994, pp. 295-300.

[24] Saber, O., Abyaneh, S., Zohoor, H., "A cable-suspended robot with a novel cable based end effector," In ASME 2010 10th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, 2010, pp. 799-808.

[25]  Köker, R., Cemil , Ö., Tarık, Ç., Hüseyin, E., "A study of neural network based inverse kinematics solution for a three-joint robot," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2004, pp. 227-234.

[26] Oyama, E., Arvin, A., Karl, F. M., Taro, M., Susumu, T., "A modular neural network architecture for inverse kinematics model learning," Neurocomputing, Vol. 38, 2001, pp. 797-805.

[27] Bingul, Z., Ertunc, H. M., Oysu, C., Comparison of inverse kinematics solutions using neural network for 6R robot manipulator with offset, In Computational Intelligence Methods and Applications, 2005.

[28] Chiddarwar, S. S., Ramesh, B. N., "Comparison of RBF and MLP neural networks to solve inverse kinematic problem for 6R serial robot by a fusion approach," Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1083-1092.

[29] Hosseini, M. A., Daniali, H. R. M., "Kinematic analysis of tricept parallel manipulator," IIUM Engineering Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2012.

 [30] Gosselin, C. M., "Static balancing of spherical 3-DOF parallel mechanisms and manipulators," The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 18, No. 8, 1999, pp. 819-829.

[31] Ebert-Uphoff, I., Gosselin, C. M., Laliberte, T., "Static balancing of spatial parallel platform mechanisms-revisited," Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 122, No. 1, 2000, pp. 43-51.

[32] Gallina, P., Rossi, A., Williams, I. I., Robert, L., "Planar cable-direct-driven robots," Proceeding of the ASME IDETC/CIE Mechanics and Robotics Conference, 2001, pp. 1241-1247.

[33] Lee, M. K., Park, K. W., "Kinematic and dynamic analysis of a double parallel manipulator for enlarging workspace and avoiding singularities," IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 15, No. 6, 1999, pp. 1024-1034.

[34] Verhoeven, R., "Analysis of the workspace of tendon-based Stewart Platforms," PhD Thesis, Duisburg-Essen University, 2004.

[35] Gouttefarde, M., Merlet, J. P., Daney, D., Determination of the wrench-closure workspace of 6-DOF parallel cable-driven mechanisms, Springer, 2006, pp. 315-22.

[36] Lim, W. B., Yang, G., Yeo, S. H., Mustafa, S. K., "A generic force-closure analysis algorithm for cable-driven parallel manipulators," Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 46, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1265-1275.

[37] Kawamura, S., Ito, K., "A new type of master robot for teleoperation using a radial wire drive system," IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System, Intelligent Robots for Flexibility, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1993, pp. 55-60.

[38] Basic human anatomy, from https://www.dartmouth.edu/~humananatomy/figures/chapter_17/17-6.HTM

[39] Foot fitness, from http://fitsouffle.com/home?page=51, accessed on 2013-05-23.

[40] Active range of motion exercises, from http://www.drugs.com/cg/active-range-of-motion-exercises.html.