Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Center for Advanced Engineering Research, Majlesi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran. *Corresponding author


In this paper, the effects of various parameters on the process of T-shaped copper tube bulge forming have been investigated. This evaluation is based on the properties of the copper tubes, properties of polyurethane rod and practical conditions of a bulge forming process such as the friction coefficient between die and tube, between tube and rod, boundary conditions and their constraints. The effect of each condition on a T-shaped copper tube has been explicitly simulated using the Abaqus software. The experimental results have been validated by conducting a series of experiments. After simulating the process, the effect of other parameters such as die corner radius, friction coefficient, thickness of the tube and counterpoise can be evaluated and used in practical experiments. Then, the simulation results have been compared with the obtained results from the experiments. Once the accuracy of the simulation results has been endorsed, the optimal values of different parameters have been determined using simulations. The optimal values for die corner radius, friction coefficient and counterpoise are 5 mm, 0.05 and 200 N, respectively. The findings shows the positive effect of utilization of optimal value for die corner radius, optimal value for counterpoise and lubricate on optimize forming process properties.


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