Experimental and Analytical Study of Aluminum-oxide Nanofluid Implication for Cooling System of an Amphibious Engine

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The aim of this manuscript is to study the implication of aluminium-oxide nanofluid for an amphibious vehicle engine (viable on land and under water) cooling system both analytically and experimentally. To achieve this, a one-dimensional model of the engine cooling system (radiator) is considered through a computational fluid code in which the mass flow rate for a range of the coolant temperature is assumed to be constant. By knowing the volumetric flow rate of the air passing over the radiator, the heat transfer rates for different aluminium-oxide nanofluid volume concentrations at different amphibious engine gears are determined. The analytical results indicate that a 7% aluminium-oxide nanofluid increases the engine radiator heat transfer performance by 24.9%, while the experimental results show that the coolant outlet temperature is about 3˚C lower than the case without the nanofluid in the coolant.


[1]     Wen, D., Ding, Y.,“Experimental Investigation into Convective Heat Transfer of the Entrance Region Under Laminar Flow Conditions”,International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 47, No. 24, 2004, pp. 5181-5188.

[2]     Jung. J, H. OH., and Kwak, H., “Forced Convective Heat Transfer of Microchannel”, IMECE-13851 ASME-Publications had, Vol. 327, 2006, pp. 377-380.

[3]     Bai, M., Xu, Z., and Lv, J., “Application of Engine Cooling System”, SAE, No. 1, 2008.

[4]     Shikhzadeh, Gh., Hajilow, M. H., and Jafarian, H. V., “Study of Effect of Nanofluid on Radiator Performance in Different Air Condition”, 19th Annual International Conference on Mechanical Engineering- ISME2011, Tehran, Iran, 2011.

[5]     Torabi, M., Aliyari, Sh., and Mobini, K., “Study on Effect of Nanofluides on Cooling System by Using of GT-suite Software”, 1st Iranian nanotechnalogy and nanomaterial conference, Shahrood, Iran, 2011.

[6]     Bozorgan, N., Panahizadeh, F., and Bozorgan, Nr., “Investigating the Using of  Nanofluid  as a Coolant in Double-tube Heat Exchanger”, Mechanics Modares Journals ,Vol. 11, No. 3, 2011,  pp. 75-84.

[7]     Che Sidik, N. A., Afiq Witri Mohd Yazid, M. N., and Mamat, R., “A Review on the Application of Nanofluids in Vehicle Engine Cooling System”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 68, 2015, pp. 85–90.

[8]     Naik, M. T., Syed Sha, Fahad, Syam Sundar, L., and Singh, Manoj. K., “Comparative Study on Thermal Performance of Twisted Tape and Wire Coil Inserts in Turbulent Flow Using CuO/water”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 57, 2014, pp. 65–76.

[9]     Bhuiya, M. M. K., Azad, A. K., Chowdhury, M. S. U., and Saha, M., “Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Circular Tube with Perforated Double Counter Twisted Tape Inserts”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer Vol. 74, 2016, pp. 18–26.

[10]  Hasanpour, A., Farhadi, M., Sedighi, K., “A Review Study on Twisted Tape Inserts on Turbulent Flow Heat Exchangers and Overall Enhancement Ratio Criteria”, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer Vol. 55, 2014, pp. 53–62.