Document Type : Original Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Iran


In the present study a procedure is proposed for the development of bone surface models by using point clouds that can be extracted from CT scan images. Since the images are as multiple two dimensional sections, three methods of surface fitting are considered: ruled, skinning and global approximation methods. The required algorithms were discussed in fields of image processing and curve and surface fitting. For the purpose of further exploring the modelling requirements and results, and gaining further insights into the impacts of effective parameters, a computer program was developed. By adopting a detailed case study and analysis approach, three samples of the cattle’s bones were selected and scanned with CT scan. Similar protocols corresponding to the human body bones were used during the scanning process. Subsequently, the surface models of the sample output from the program were transferred to CAD software. Moreover, the samples were scanned with COMET5™scanner after removing the flashes surrounding the bones. It was observed that although the bone surface modelling is feasible within 0.25 and 0.75 mm accuracy range with these algorithms, skinning method works better compared to other two algorithms in terms of processing speed and increasing the ratio of data compaction. The use of control points balance algorithm and smoothing the contours, used in this paper, will greatly improve the performance of the program as well.


[1]       Subburaj, K., “CT Scanning Techniques and Applications”, INTECH, 2011, chapt. 1.
[2]       Chiffre, L., Camignato, S., Kruth, J. -P., Schmitt, R., and Weckenmann, A., “Industrial Applications of Computed Tomography”, CIRP. Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 63, 2014, pp. 655-677.
[3]       Sun, W., Starly, B., Nam, J. and Darling, A., “Bio-CAD Modeling and its Applications in Computer Ttissue Engineering,” Comuter-Aided Design, Vol. 37, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1097-1114.
[4]       Viceconti, M., Casali, M., Massari, B., Cristofolini, L., Bassini, S., and Toni, A., “The Standardized Femur Program Proposal for a Reference Geometry to be used for the Creation of Finite Element Models of the Femur”, J. Biomech. Vol. 29, 1996, pp. 525-535.
[5]       Viceconti, M., Zannoni, C., and Pierotti, L., “TRI2SOLID: an Application of Reverse Engineering Methods to the Creation of CAD Models of Bone Segments”, Comput. Methods and Progr. in Biomed., Vol. 56, 1998, pp. 211-220.
[6]       Lee, T. Y., Lin, C. H., “Feature-Guided Shape-Based Image Interpolation,” IEEE Trans.on Med. Imaging, Vol. 21, 2002, pp. 1479-1489.
[7]       Gonzalez, R. C., Woods, R. E., and Eddins, S. L., “Digital Image Processing Using Matlab”, 2nd ed., Pearson Education., 2010, Chapt. 10.
[8]       Rajon, D. A., Bolch, W. E., “Marching Cube Algorithm: Review and Trilinear Interpolation Adaptation for Image-Based Dosimetric Models. Comput”, Med. Imaging and Graph., Vol. 27, 2003, pp. 411-435.
[9]       Ma, D., Lin, F., and Chua, C. K., “Rapid Protyping Applications in Medicine Part 1: NURBS-Based Volume Modelling”, Int. J. of Adv. Manuf. Technol.,Vol. 18, 2001, pp. 103-117.
[10]    Yoo, D. J., “Three-Dimensional Surface Reconstruction of Human Bone using a B-spline Based Interpolation Approach”, Comput. Aided Des., Vol. 43, 2011, pp. 934-947.
[11]    Lai, J. Y., Ueng, W. D., “Reconstruction of Surface of Revolution from Measured Points”, Comput. in Ind.,Vol. 41, 2000, pp. 147-161.
[12]    Park, H., “An Approximate Lofting Approach for B-Spline Surface Fitting to Functional Surfaces”, Int. J. of Adv. Manuf. Thechnol.,Vol. 18, 2001, pp. 474-482.
[13]    Ueng, W. D., Lai, J. Y., and Doong, J. L., “Sweep-Surface Reconstruction from Three-Dimensional Measured Data”, Comput. Aided Des.,Vol. 30, 1998, pp. 791-805.
[14]    Ma, W., Kruth, J. P., “NURBS Curve and Surface Fitting for Reverse Engineering”, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.,Vol. 14, 1998, pp. 918-927.
[15]    Piegl, L. A., Tiller, W., “Parametrization for Surface Fitting in Reverse Engineering”, Comput. Aided Des., Vol. 33, 2001, pp. 593-603.
[16]    Yuwen, S., “B-spline Surface Reconstruction and Direct Slicing from Point Clouds”, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.,Vol. 27, 2006, pp. 918-924.
[17]    Derakhshan, A., “Automatic Extraction of the Machining Program from Raster Image”, MSc Dissertation, Mech. Eng. Dept., Univ. of Hormozgan, 2013.
[18]    Piegl, L. A., Tiller, W., “The NURBS Book”, Berlin, Springer Press, 1997, chaps.5, 9, 10.