Development of Thermal and Structural Deformation Model to Predict the Part Build Dimensional Error in Fused Deposition Modeling

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai-15, Tamilnadu, India


The most common extrusion based technology in rapid prototyping is Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). In FDM process, widely used materials are Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate. In this study ABS-P430 material is considered. During the part build process, the rapid heating and cooling is happening on the build part which leads to high thermal gradient. This thermal gradient causes thermal stress; it will lead to deformation of build parts. In this paper a three dimensional transient thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) had been used to find out the maximum principal stress and deformation of the build part. This FEA analysis is called as thermal and structural deformation model or 3D FEA model. In this model, the novel technique called Element birth/death is used in ANSYS11 to mimic the FDM process. The most influencing parameters of FDM process called orientation and layer thickness have been considered in a 3D FEA model to calculate the deformation of a part. To validate the work, a standard design which is considered in 3D FEA model is fabricated using dimension 1200es FDM machine using same orientation and layer thickness and deformation is measured. From the results it was observed that the relative error between 3D FEA model and actual fabricated model is found to be 3-6%. This 3D FEA model would be helpful for RP machine users to find the deformation of the build part before making the products.


[1]   Rahmati, S., Ghadami, F., Process Parameters Optimization to Improve Dimensional Accuracy of Stereolithography Parts, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014, pp. 59-65.

[2]   Chockalingam, K., Jawahar, N., Chandrasekhar, U., Praveen, J., and Karthic, M., Development of Process Model for Optimal Selection of Process Parameters for Geometric Tolerances and Surface Roughness in Stereolithography, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2016, pp. 103–113.

[3]   Sreedhar, P., Mathikumar Manikandan, C. and Jothi, G., Experimental Investigation of Surface Roughness for Fused Deposition Modeled Part with Different Angular Orientation, International Journal of Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2012, pp. 21-28.

[4]   Zhang Y., Chou. K., A parametric Study of Part Distortions in Fused Deposition Modeling Using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis, Journal of Engineering Manufacturer, 2007, pp. 990.

[5]   Zhou, Y., Xiong, G., Nyberg, T., and Liu, D., Temperature Analysis in the Fused Deposition Modeling Process, 3rd International Conference on Information Science and Control Engineering, 2017.

[6]   Gorski, F., Kuczko, W., Wichniarek, R., and Hamrol, A., Computation of Mechanical Properties of Parts Manufactured by FDM Using Finite Element Method, 10th International Conference on Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications, 2015, pp. 368.

[7]   Liangbo, J. I., Tianruizhou, Finite Element Simulation of Temperature Field in Fused Deposition Modelling, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 97-101, 2010, pp. 2585-2588.

[8]   Jiang, W., Dalgarno, K. W., and Childs, T.H.C., Finite Element Analysis of Residual Stresses and Deformations in Direct Metal SLS Process, Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, 2000, pp 340-348.

[9]   Paul, R., Anand, S., and Gerner, F., Effect of Thermal Deformation on Part Errors in Metal Powder Based Additive Manufacturing Processes, Journal of manufacturing science and Engineering, Vol. 136, 2014, pp. 031009-1-031009-12.

[10]              R Erik, D., Heige, J. C., and Michaleris, P., Residual Stress and Distortion Modeling of Electron Beam Direct Manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V, Journal of Engineering manufacture, 2014, pp. 1-11.

[11]              Mukherjee, T., Zhang, W., and DebRoy, T., An Improved Prediction of Residual Stresses and Distortion in Additive Manufacturing, Computational Materials Science Vol. 126, 2017, pp. 360–372.

[12]              Chen, Q., Guillemot, G., Gandin, C. A., and Bellet, M., Three-Dimensional Finite Element Thermomechanical Modeling Ofadditive Manufacturing by Selective Laser Melting for Ceramicmaterials, Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 16, 2017, pp. 124–137.

[13]              Ahmed, M. O., Masood, S. H., and Bhowmik, J. L., Optimization of Fused Deposition Modeling Process Parameters for Dimensional Accuracy Using I-Optimality Criterion, Measurement, Vol. 8, 2016, pp. 174-196.

[14]              Erik R, Irwin, D, and Michaleris, P., Thermomechanical Modeling of Additive Manufacturing Large Parts, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 136, 2014.

[15]              Ding, J., Colgrove, P., Mehnen, M., Williams, S., Wang, F., and Sequeira Almeida, P., A Computationally Efficient Finite Element Model of Wire and Arc Additive Manufacture, International journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2014, pp. 227-236.

[16]              Madenci, E., Guven, I., The Finite Element Method and Applications in Engineering Using ANSYS®, Second edition, Springer, 2015.

[17]              Stratasys, Dimension 1200 es machine Best Practice: Advanced Z calibration, USA, 2014.

[18]              Book of ASTM Standards Part 9 – Plastics, Carbon Black, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1961.

[19]              ANSYS, ANSYS 12.1 Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications, 2009.