Data-based Probe for Bearing Balls using Design Expert with Biodegradable Media

Document Type: Original Article

Author

Department of Aeronautical Engineering, School of Aeronautics, Rajasthan Technical University, India

Abstract

This paper discusses about the lapping process for both metallic and non-metallic materials. The experiments were carried out based on the RSM design of experiments (DOE) approach to investigate the effect of their parameters on the lapping quality of ball bearing, for predicting the new results. This study explored the modification for fine finishing of bearing balls through Biodegradable medium (Aloe Vera) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder as an abrasive in addition of conventional oil-based media having an advantage like Antioxidant, antibacterial, non–toxic, good compression, and shear stresses. Spindle speed (rpm), Time (minutes), Force (N), Abrasive concentration were considered as the input process variables while the PISF, MRR and surface Roundness was considered as the process response. The result shows the most significant parameter for maximum PISF of 82.3%, 7.6 mg/min MRR and 9.05μm roundness was achieved with 672 rpm at 7.5 N force, 37.5% abrasive concentration, 165 minutes experimental run time, was achieved.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]           Bhagavat, S., Carlos, J., and Kao, C. C., Effects of Mixed Abrasive Grits in Slurries on Free Abrasive Machining (FAM) Processes, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 50, 2010, pp. 843–847.

[2]           Bhagavatula, S. R., Komanduri, R., On Chemo-Mechanical Polishing of Silicon Nitride with Chromium Oxide Abrasive, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 74, No. 4, 1996, pp. 1003-10171.

[3]           Chandrasekhar S., Shaw. M. C., and Bhushan, B., Lapping Experiment and Performance Analysis for the Gauge Block, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 42, 2002, pp. 114-220.

[4]           Childs, T. H. C., Mahmood, S., and Yoon, H. J., The Material Removal Mechanism in Magnetic Fluid Grinding of Ceramic Ball Bearings, Proceeding of International Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 208, Bl, 1994, pp. 47-59.

[5]           Choi, N. S., Chang, J. Y., Kwak, S. B., and Gu, Ja-Uk., Impact Surface Fractures of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Lamina-Coated Glass Plates by Small Steel-Ball, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 70, 2010, pp. 2056-2062.

[6]           Dhand, D., Singh, S., Experimental Studies in Fine Finishing Of Steel Balls, International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research, 2017, pp. 105-110.

[7]           Kang S. C., Chung, D. W., The Synthesis and Frictional Properties of Lubricant-Impregnated Cast Nylons, Wear, Vol. 239, 2000, pp. 244-250.

[8]           Kang, J., Hadfield, M., A Novel Eccentric Lapping Machine for Finishing Advanced Ceramic Balls, Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Proceedings of Institution of Technical Engineers, Vol. 215, 2001, pp. 781-795.

[9]           Kang, J., Hadfield, M., Examination of the Material Removal Mechanisms During the Lapping Process of Advanced Ceramic Rolling Elements, Wear, Vol 258, 2004, pp. 2-12.

[10]        Komanduri, R., Umehara, N., and Raghunandan, M., On the Possibility of Chemo-Mechanical Action in Magnetic Float Polishing of Silicon Nitride, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 118, No. 4, 1996, pp. 721-727.

[11]        Komanduri, R., On the Mechanisms of Material Removal in Fine Grinding and Polishing of Advanced Ceramics, Annals of CIRP, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1996.

[12]        Kumar, M., Pratheesh, R., and Babu, R. A., Optimization of Process Parameters in Lapping of Stainless Steel, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 2, No. 9, 1996.

[13]        Lee, R. T., Hwang, Y. C., and Chiou, Y. C., Lapping of Ultra-Precision Ball Surfaces Concentric V-Groove Lapping System, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 46, 2005, pp. 1146-1156.

[14]        Malpotra, A., Singh, L., Development of Magnetic Float Polishing Machine for Steel Balls, Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), Vol. 3, 2014, pp. 31-35.

[15]        Patel, P. J., Sheth, S., and Chauhan, P., Effects of Various Parameters on Spread in Flashing Operation of Precision Steel Ball Manufacturing Process, Procedia Materials Science, Vol. 5, 2013, pp. 2224-2232.

[16]        Raghunandan, M., Umehara, N., Noori-Khajavi, N., and Komanduri, R., Magnetic Float Polishing of Advanced Ceramics, ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, 1995.

[17]        Shimada, K., Wu, Y., Matsuo, Y., and Yamamoto, K., Floatnpolishing Technique Using New Tool Consisting of Micro Magnetic Clusters, Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol. 162-163, 2005, pp. 691-695.

[18]        Xue, Z., Fu, C. A., and Zhang, T., Research on Mechanism of Lapping Balls, Journal of Jiangnan University, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2009, pp. 439-444.

[19]        Zhang, J., Li, G., Gao, R., Yan, B., and Xue, H., Dynamic Analysis and Design of Steel-Ball Grinding Machines Based on No-Slip Cases, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2014, pp. 207 – 212.

[20]        Zhao, G., Hussainova, I., Antonov, M., and Wang, Q., and Wang, T., Friction and Wear of Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites, Vol. 301, 2013, pp. 122-129.

[21]        Umehara, N., Kirtane, T., Gerlick, R., Jain V. K., and Komanduri, R., A New Apparatus for Finishing Large Size/Large Batch Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) Balls for Hybrid Bearing Applications by Magnetic Float Polishing (MFP), Int. J. Machine Tools Manufacturing, Vol. 46, 2013, pp. 151-169.

[22]        Umehara, N., Magnetic Fluid Grinding—a New Technique for Finishing Advanced Ceramics, Annals of CIRP, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1994, pp. 185-188.

[23]        Umehara, N., Kato, K., Hydro-Magnetic Grinding Properties of Magnetic Fluid Containing Grains at High Speeds, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 65, 1987, pp. 397-400.

[24]        Umehara, N., Komanduri, R., On the Material Removal Mechanismsin Polishing of Advanced Ceramics, Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Tribologists (in Japanese), 1994.