Investigating the Tribological Behavior of Diesel-biodiesel Blends with Nanoparticle Additives under Short-term Tests

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran Aerospace and Energy Conversion Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

Abstract

The addition of nanoparticles to lubricant is effective for the reduction of wear and friction in the mechanical system. In this research, the effects of additions of copper oxide nanoparticle nanoparticles on lubrication behavior of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were investigated by using a four-ball tester. Three fuel blends with the addition of 0, 25, 50 and 75 ppm nanoparticle were tested in steady-state conditions at four different rotational speed of 600, 1200 and 1500 rev/min. the results showed that the friction coefficient decreases with the increase in nanoparticles up to 50 ppm because of filling the friction surface with the nanoparticles and replacement of sliding friction with the rolling effect in the contact zone. On the other hand, the FC was enhanced significantly with 75 ppm nanoparticle addition in fuel blends B10 and B20. However, the results showed that the lubrication of fuel blend B50 with the 75 ppm nanoparticle is better than that of other fuel blends in the same situation. Moreover, it was found that with an increase in biodiesel concentration the friction coefficient was reduced due to free fatty acids, monoglycerides, and diglycerides as the components of biodiesel.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]    Wu, Y. Y., Tsui, W. C., and Liu, T. C., Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties of Lubricating Oils with Nanoparticle Additives, Wear, Vlol. 262. No. 7, 2007, pp. 819-825.

[2]    Padgurskas, J., et al., Tribological Properties of Lubricant Additives of Fe, Cu and Co Nanoparticles, Tribology International, Vol. 60, 2013, pp. 224-232.

[3]    Tung, S. C., McMillan, M. L., Automotive Tribology Overview of Current Advances and Challenges for the Future, Tribology International, Vol. 37, No. 7, 2004, pp. 517-536.

[4]    Ushakov, S., Valland, H., and Æsøy, V., Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Fish Oil Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 65, 2013, pp. 228-238.

[5]    Demirbas, A., Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil Via Base-Catalytic and Supercritical Methanol Transesterification, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2009, pp. 923-927.

[6]    Shirneshan, A., Samani, B. H., and Ghobadian, B., Optimization of Biodiesel Percentage in Fuel Mixture and Engine Operating Conditions for Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics by Artificial Bees Colony Algorithm, Fuel, Vol. 184, 2016, pp. 518-526.

[7]    Shirneshan, A., Nedayali, A., Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine, Jurnal Teknologi, Vol. 78, No. 6, 2016, pp. 169-177.

[8]    Shirneshan, A., et al., Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Based Optimization of Biodiesel-Diesel Blends and Investigation of Their Effects on Diesel Engine Operating Conditions and Emission Characteristics, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12, 2016, pp. 2771-2780.

[9]    Karonis, D., et al., Assessment of the Lubricity of Greek Road Diesel and the Effect of the Addition of Specific Types of Biodiesel, 1999, SAE International.

[10] Anastopoulos, G., et al., Impact of Oxygen and Nitrogen Compounds on the Lubrication Properties of Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels, Energy, Vol. 30, No. 2–4, 2005, pp. 415-426.

[11] Goodrum, J. W., Geller, D. P., Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Hydroxylated Vegetable Oils on Diesel Fuel Lubricity, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 96, No. 7, 2005, pp. 851-855.

[12] Hughes, J. M., Mushrush, G. W., and Hardy, D. R., Lubricity-Enhancing Properties of Soy Oil When Used as a Blending Stock for Middle Distillate Fuels, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2002, pp. 1386-1388.

[13] Maleque, M. A., , Masjuki, H. H. and Haseeb, A. S. M. A., Effect of Mechanical Factors on Tribological Properties of Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blended Lubricant, Wear, Vol. 239, No. 1, 2000, pp. 117-125.

[14] Chinas-Castillo, F., Spikes, H. A., Mechanism of Action of Colloidal Solid Dispersions, Journal of Tribology, Vol. 125, No. 3, pp. 552-557.

[15] Chen, S., Liu, W., and Yu, L., Preparation of DDP-Coated PbS Nanoparticles and Investigation of the Antiwear Ability of the Prepared Nanoparticles as Additive in Liquid Paraffin, Wear, Vol. 218, No.2, 1998, pp. 153-158.

[16] Chen, S., Liu, W., Oleic Acid Capped PbS Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Tribological Properties, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2006, pp. 183-189.

[17] Rapoport, L., et al., Friction and Wear of Powdered Composites Impregnated with WS2 Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles, Wear, Vol. 252, No. 5, 2002, pp. 518-527.

[18] Tao, X., Jiazheng, Z., and Kang, X.,The Ball-Bearing Effect of Diamond Nanoparticles as an Oil Additive, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 29, No. 11, 1996, pp. 2932-2937.

[19] Choi, Y., et al., Tribological Behavior of Copper Nanoparticles as Additives in Oil, Current Applied Physics, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2009, pp. e124-e127.

[20] Lee, C. G., et al., A Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Graphite Nano Lubricants, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2009, pp. 85-90.

[21] Ku, B. C., et al., Tribological Effects of Fullerene (C60) Nanoparticles Added in Mineral Lubricants According to Its Viscosity, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2010, pp. 607-611.

[22] Liu, G., et al., Investigation of the Mending Effect and Mechanism of Copper Nano-Particles on a Tribologically Stressed Surface, Tribology Letters, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2004, pp. 961-966.

[23] Sivakumar, M., et al., Effect of Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles Blended Pongamia Methyl Ester on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine, Renewable Energy, Vol. 116, 2018, pp. 518-526.

[24] Chen, A. F., et al., Combustion Characteristics, Engine Performances and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using Nanoparticle-Diesel Fuel Blends with Aluminium Oxide, Carbon Nanotubes and Silicon Oxide, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 171, 2018, pp. 461-477.

[25] Fazal, M. A., Haseeb, A. S. M. A., and Masjuki, H. H., Investigation of Friction and Wear Characteristics of Palm Biodiesel, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 67, 2013, pp. 251-256.

[26] Yamane, K., et al., Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Thermal Oxidation Characteristics, Review of Automotive Engineering, Vol. 27, 2006, pp. 593–600.

[27] Yu, H. L., et al., Characterization and Nano-Mechanical Properties of Tribofilms Using Cu Nanoparticles as Additives, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 203, No. 1, 2008, pp. 28-34.

[28] Fazal, M. A., Haseeb, A. S. M. A., and Masjuki, H. H., A Critical Review on the Tribological Compatibility of Automotive Materials in Palm Biodiesel, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 79, 2014, pp. 180-186.

[29] Fazal, M. A., Haseeb, A. S. M. A., and Masjuki, H. H., Corrosion Mechanism of Copper in Palm Biodiesel, Corrosion Science, Vol. 67, 2013, pp. 50-59.

[30] Hu, J., et al., Study on the Lubrication Properties of Biodiesel as Fuel Lubricity Enhancers, Fuel, Vol. 84, No. 12–13, pp. 1601-1606.

[31] Barsari, M. A. N., Shirneshan, A., An Experimental Study of Friction and Wear Characteristics of Sunflower and Soybean Oil Methyl Ester Under the Steady-State Conditions by the Four-Ball Wear Testing Machine, Journal of Tribology,Vol. 141, No. 4, 2019, pp. 044501-044501-10.