Microstructure Investigation and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Upset Butt Welded Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Materials Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran


In the present study, resistance upset butt welding was used as a solid-state process for joining Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Results showed that melting and subsequent solidification of the alloy at the joint interface promoted the development of a cast microstructure along with some pores. However, by applying the constant upset pressure of 1.62 MPa, the pore volume fraction decreased considerably with decreasing the welding current from 110 A/mm2 to 55 A/mm2. Hardness test results showed that the weld interface and the base material had the highest (352 HV) and the lowest (318 HV) values, respectively. The microstructure of the interface consisted of ά martensite and Widmanstätten laths. The tensile strength of the joints varied between 550 and 883 MPa depending on the welding parameters used. In the optimum condition, the maximum strength of the joint was about 94% of the base metal strength. Fractography of samples confirmed that the formation of pores deteriorated the strength of the joints.


[1]     Taylor, J. C., Hondrum, S. O., Prasad, A., and Brodersen, C. A., Effects of Joint Configuration For the Arc Welding of Cast Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Rods in Argon, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry Vol. 79, No. 3, 1998, pp. 291-297.

[2]     Mathers, G., Welding of Titanium & Its Alloys, https://www.twi-global.com. 2019.

[3]     Balasubramanian, V. V., Malarvizhi, S., Vijay, P., and Gourav, R. A., High Temperature Tensile Properties and Microstructural Characterization of Gas Tungsten Constricted Arc Welded Ti–6Al–4V Alloy, Materials Research Express, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2019, pp. 0965d6.

[4]     Meshram, S. D., Mohandas, T., A Comparative Evaluation of Friction and Electron Beam Welds of Near-α Titanium Alloy, Materials & Design, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2010, pp. 2245-2252.

[5]     Chiani, M., Atapour, M., A Study on the Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Joints, Materials Research Express, Vol. 6, No. 9, 2019, pp. 096598.

[6]     Kahraman, N., Gülenç, B., and Findik, F., Joining of Titanium/Stainless Steel by Explosive Welding and Effect on Interface, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 169, No. 2, 2005, pp. 127-133.

[7]     Andreoli, A. F., Ponsoni, J. B., Soares, C., de Oliveira, M. F., and Kiminami, C. S., Resistance Upset Welding of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 255, 2018, pp. 760-764.

[8]     Doyen, O., Gloannec, B. L., Deschamps, A., Geuser, F. D., Pouvreau, C., and Poulon-Quintin, A., Ferritic and Martensitic ODS Steel Resistance Upset Welding of Fuel Claddings: Weldability Assessment and Metallurgical Effects, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 518, 2019, pp. 326-333.

[9]     Hamedi, M., Eisazadeh, H., and Esmailzadeh, M., Numerical Simulation of Tensile Strength of Upset Welded Joints with Experimental Verification, Materials & Design, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2010, pp. 2296-2304.

[10]  Hasegawa, K., Resistance Butt Welding of Aluminium Alloys, Welding International Vol. 11, No. 3, 1997, pp. 206-211.

[11]  Setty, D. S., Ravinder, R. P., and Murthy, A. L. N., Resistance Butt Welding of Zirconium Alloy Material, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 23, No. 8, 2008, pp. 844-851.

[12]  Sharifitabar, M., Halvaee, A., Resistance Upset Butt Welding of Austenitic to Martensitic Stainless Steels, Materials & Design, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2010, pp. 3044-3050.

[13]  Sharifitabar, M., Halvaee, A., and S. Khorshahian, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Upset Butt Welded 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel Joints, Materials & Design, Vol. 32, No. 7, 2011, pp. 3854-3864.

[14]  Min, K. B., Kim, K. S., and Kang, S. S., A Study on Resistance Welding in Steel Sheets Using a Tailor-Welded Blank (1st Report): Evaluation of Upset Weldability and Formability, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2000, pp. 186-192.

[15]  Kerstens, N. F. H., Richardson, I. M., Heat Distribution in Resistance Upset Butt Welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 209, No. 5, 2009, pp. 2715-2722.

[16]  Le Gloannec, B., Doyen, O., Pouvreau, C., Doghri, A., and Poulon-Quintin, A., Numerical Simulation of Resistance Upset Welding in Rod to Tube Configuration with Contact Resistance Determination, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 238, 2016, pp. 409-422.

[17]  Ozlati, A., Movahedi, M., Effect of Welding Heat-Input on Tensile Strength and Fracture Location in Upset Resistance Weld of Martensitic Stainless Steel to Duplex Stainless Steel Rods, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 35, 2018, pp. 517-525.

[18]  Pradille, C., Bay, F., and Mocellin, K., An Experimental Study to Determine Electrical Contact Resistance, 2010 Proceedings of the 56th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, 2010, pp. 1-5.

[19]  Kumar, K., Masanta, M., and Kumar Sahoo S., Microstructure Evolution and Metallurgical Characteristic of Bead-on-Plate TIG Welding of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 265, 2019, pp. 34-43.

[20]  Xu, J., Zhu, J., Fan, J., Zhou, Q., Peng, Y., and Guo, S., Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy Fabricated Using Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication, Vacuum, Vol. 167, 2019, pp. 364-373.

[21]  Christoph Leyens, M. P., Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. 2003.