Document Type : Original Article


Department of Mechanics, Tuyserkan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tuyserkan, Iran


In this paper, crushing length, deformations and energy absorption of thin walled square and rectangular composite tubes which are reinforced with Aluminium and SMA wires and without wire have been investigated under a quasi-static lateral load, both experimentally and numerically. To experimental study, square and rectangular composite tubes have been fabricated with SMA wire, Aluminium wire and without wire. To validate the results, a finite element model is constructed and analysed under the same conditions by using FEM27 and LS-DYNA software packages for composite tubes with Aluminium wire and without wire. The numerical results are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The results show that section geometry and the types of reinforcement wires have a considerable effect on the energy absorption. Rectangular cross-section samples with SMA wires have the most energy absorption capacity.


[1]     Funakubo, H., Kennedy, J. B, Shape Memory Alloys, Gordon and Breach, xii+ 275, 15 x 22 cm, Illustrated, 1987.
[2]     Wayman, C. M., Duerig, T. W., An Introduction to Martensite and Shape Memory, Butterworth-Heinemann, Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys (UK), 1990, pp. 3-20.
[3]     Dehghanpour, S., Yousefi, A., Lateral Crushing of Square and Rectangular Metallic Tubes under Different Quasi-Static Conditions. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 6, 2012, pp. 628-632
[4]     Cetin, E., Baykasoğlu, C., Energy Absorption of Thin-Walled Tubes Enhanced by Lattice Structures, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. Vol. 157, 2019, pp. 471-84.
[5]     Firouzi, M., Niknejad, A., and Ziaee, S., Hematiyan M. R., Optimization of H-Shaped Thin-Walled Energy Absorber by Taguchi Method and A New Theoretical Estimation for Its Energy Absorption. Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 131, 2018, pp. 33-44.
[6]     Kaczyński, P., Karliński, J., and Hawryluk, M., Experimental and Numerical Studies of the Behavior and Energy Absorption of Foam-Filled Circular Tubes, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 2020, pp. 521-527.
[7]     Kheirikhah, M. M., Dehghanpour, S., and Rahmani, M., Quasi-Static Axial Compression of thin-walled Circular Composite Tubes, Journal of Structural Engineering and Geo-Techniques. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2016, pp. 9-13.
[8]     Gupta, N. K., Sekhon, G. S., and Gupta, P. K., Study of Lateral Compression of Round Metallic Tubes, Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2005, pp. 895-922.
[9]     Morris, E., Olabi, A. G., and Hashmi, M. S. J., Analysis of Nested Tube Type Energy Absorbers with Different Indenters and Exterior Constraints. Thin-walled structures, Vol. 44, No. 8, 2006, pp. 872-885.
[10]  Dehghanpour, S., Rahmani, M., Experimental and Numerical Study of Lateral Collapse of Square and Rectangular Composite Tubes, Conference: Proceedings of the World Congress on Mechanical, Chemical, and Material Engineering, 2015.
[11]  Rogers C. A., Robertshaw, H. H., Development of a Novel Smart Material, In Proceedings of the 1988 Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineer, 1988, pp. 1-5.
[12]  Khalili, S. M. R., Shokuhfar, A., Malekzadeh, K., and Ghasemi F. A., Low-Velocity Impact Response of Active Thin-Walled Hybrid Composite Structures Embedded with SMA Wires, Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2007, pp. 799-808.
[13]  Nguyen, T. N., Thai, C. H., Nguyen-Xuan, H., and Lee, J., NURBS-Based Analyses of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composite Shells, Composite Structures, Vol. 203, 2018, pp. 349-360.
[14]  Khalili, S. M. R., Saeedi, A., Dynamic Response of Laminated Composite Beam Reinforced with Shape Memory Alloy Wires Subjected to Low Velocity Impact of Multiple Masses, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2018, pp. 1089-1101.
[15]  Khalili, S., Khalili, S. M. R., Farsani, R. E., and Mahajan, P., Flexural Properties of Sandwich Composite Panels with Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy Facesheets Strengthened by SMA Wires, Polymer Testing, 2020, pp. 106641.
[16]  Khalili, S. M. R., Ardali, A., Low-Velocity Impact Response of Doubly Curved Symmetric Cross-Ply Laminated Panel with Embedded SMA wires. Composite Structures, Vol. 105, 2013, pp. 216-226.
[17]  Shariyat, M., Niknami, A., Layerwise Numerical and Experimental Impact Analysis of Temperature-Dependent Transversely Flexible Composite Plates with Embedded SMA Wires in Thermal Environments, Composite Structures, Vol. 153, 2016, pp. 692-703.
[18]  Payandeh, Y., Meraghni, F., Patoor, E., and Eberhardt, A., Effect of Martensitic Transformation On the Debonding Propagation in Ni–Ti Shape Memory Wire Composite, Materials Science and Engineering: A. Vol. 518, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 35-40.
[19]  Raghavan, J., Bartkiewicz, T., Boyko, S., Kupriyanov, M., Rajapakse, N., and Yu, B., Damping, Tensile, And Impact Properties of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites, Composites Part B: Engineering. Vol. 41, No. 3, 2010, pp. 214-222.