Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Arms Displacement in a New Electrothermal MEMS Actuator

M. Kolahdoozan, A. Rouhani Esfahani, M. Hassani


Microgrippers can be effectively applied for handling, positioning and assembling of the micro components. In the present study, a new design of a U-shape electrothermal microgripper was fabricated and developed with the voltages correspond between 1 to 10 volts. The microgripper was made of silicone with thickness of 25 microns, and pieces between 460 to 480 microns. The proposed microgripper has a simpler design and more facile fabrication comparing to most reported electrothermal microgripper. The behavior of the microgripper was simulated in COMSOL software to measure the displacement of the arms which hold and heat generations during the voltage changes. The present microgripper has more thermal and voltage tolerance comparing to other electrothermal microgripper. Furthermore, the obtained amount of tip displacement for voltage changes is acceptable. Another simulation method based on a three layer artificial neural network model (ANN) was carried out. Feed forward back propagation algorithm was employed as training algorithm to predict the displacement. The obtained results from both models proved that ANN model had better estimation due to the mean absolute percentage error of 1.024% and determination coefficient of 0.9995. Moreover, they confirm higher capability and accuracy of ANN in prediction of arms displacement compared to FEM.


Artificial neural network, Electrothermal actuator, Finite element method, Micro electro mechanical system

Full Text:



Kim, B.-S., Park, J.-S., Kang, B. H., And Moon, C., “Fabrication And Property Analysis of a MEMS Micro-Gripper for Robotic Micro-Manipulation”, Robotics And Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 28, 2012, Pp. 50-56.

Lu, J., Kuwabara, H., Kurashima, Y., Zhang, L., and Takagi, H., “Optimization And Evaluation of the Size-Free Integration Process For MEMS-IC Assembly With High Yields And High Efficiency”, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 145, 2015, Pp. 75-81.

Yahiaoui, R., Zeggari, R., Malapert, J., and Manceau, J.-F., “A MEMS-Based Pneumatic Micro-Conveyor for Planar Micromanipulation”, Mechatronics, Vol. 22, 2012, Pp. 515-521.

Garcés-Schröder, M., Leester-Schädel, M., Schulz, M., Böl, M., And Dietzel, A., “Micro-Gripper: a New Concept for a Monolithic Single-Cell Manipulation Device”, Sensors And Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 236, 2015, Pp. 130-139.

Kivi, A. R., Azizi, S., “on The Dynamics Of A Micro-Gripper Subjected to Electrostatic and Piezoelectric Excitations”, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Vol. 77, 2015, Pp. 183-192.

Vijayasai, A. P., Sivakumar, G., Mulsow, M., Lacouture, S., Holness, A., Dallas, T. E., and Member, I., “Haptic Controlled Three Degree-Of-Freedom Microgripper System For Assembly of Detachable Surface-Micromachined MEMS”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 179, 2012, Pp. 328-336.

Xia, X., Du, H., Wong, Y., And Yuan, Y., “Deposition And Characterisation of Shear-Mode Zno Sensor and Micro-Cantilever For Contact Sensing and Nanoactuation”, Materials & Design, Vol. 93, 2016, Pp. 255-260.

Zubir, M. N. M., Shirinzadeh, B., And Tian, Y., “A New Design of Piezoelectric Driven Compliant-Based Microgripper for Micromanipulation”, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 44, 2009, Pp. 2248-2264.

Kim, S., Zhang, X., Daugherty, R., Lee, E., Kunnen, G., Allee, D. R., Forsythe, E., and Chae, J., “Design and Implementation of Electrostatic Micro-Actuators In Ultrasonic Frequency on A Flexible Substrate, PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate)”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 195, 2013, Pp. 198-205.

Lai, H.-Y., Hsu, C.-H., And Chen, C.-K., “Optimal Design And System Characterization of Graphene Sheets In A Micro/Nano Actuator”, Computational Materials Science, Vol. 117, 2016, Pp. 478-488.

Chow, J., Lai, Y., “Displacement Sensing of a Micro-Electro-Thermal Actuator Using a Monolithically Integrated Thermal Sensor”, Sensors And Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 150, 2009, Pp. 137-143.

Wang, Z., Shen, X., And Chen, X., “Design, Modeling, and Characterization of a MEMS Electrothermal Microgripper”, Microsystem Technologies, Vol. 21, 2015, Pp. 2307-2314.

Yang, J., Lau, G., Tan, C., Chong, N., Thubthimthong, B., And He, Z., “An Electro-Thermal Micro-Actuator Based on Polymer Composite for Application to Dual-Stage Positioning Systems of Hard Disk Drives”, Sensors And Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 187, 2012, Pp. 98-104.

Lv, X., Wei, W., Mao, X., Chen, Y., Yang, J., And Yang, F., “A Novel MEMS Electromagnetic Actuator With Large Displacement”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 221, 2015, Pp. 22-28.

Zhang, T., Zhang, P., Li, H.-W., Wu, Y.-H., And Liu, Y.-S., “Fabrication of Micro Electromagnetic Ectuator of High Energy Density”, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 108, 2008, Pp. 325-330.

Zhi, C., Shinshi, T., Saito, M., and Kato, K., “Planar-Type Micro-Electromagnetic Actuators Using Patterned Thin Film Permanent Magnets and Mesh Type Coils”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 220, 2014, Pp. 365-372.

Michael, A., Kwok, C., “Piezoelectric Micro-Lens Actuator”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 236, 2015, Pp. 116-129.

Hamedi, M., Salimi, P., and Vismeh, M., “Simulation And Experimental Investigation of a Novel Electrostatic Microgripper System”, Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 98, 2012, Pp. 467-471.

Bazaz, S. A., Khan, F., And Shakoor, R. I., “Design, Simulation And Testing of Electrostatic SOI Mumps Based Microgripper Integrated With Capacitive Contact Sensor”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 167, 2011, Pp. 44-53.

Liu, G., Zhang, Y., Liu, J., Li, J., Tang, C., Wang, T., and Yang, X., “An Unconventional Inchworm Actuator Based on PZT/Erfs Control Technology”, Applied Bionics And Biomechanics, Vol. 2016, Pp. 9.

Singh, J., Teo, J., Xu, Y., Premachandran, C., Chen, N., Kotlanka, R., Olivo, M., and Sheppard, C., “A Two Axes Scanning SOI MEMS Micromirror for Endoscopic Bioimaging”, Journal Of Micromechanics And Microengineering, Vol. 18, 2007, Pp. 025001.

Pahwa, T., Gupta, S., Bansal, V., Prasad, B., and Kumar, D., “Analysis & Design Optimization of Laterally Driven Poly-Silicon Electro-Thermal Micro-Gripper for Micro-Objects Manipulation”, In COMSOL Conf. Bangalore, 2012.

Chong, S., Rui, S., Jie, L., Xiaoming, Z., Jun, T., Yunbo, S., Jun, L., And Huiliang, C., “Temperature Drift Modeling of MEMS Gyroscope Based on Genetic-Elman Neural Network”, Mechanical Systems And Signal Processing, Vol. 72–73, 5// 2016, Pp. 897-905.

El-Rabbany, A., El-Diasty, M., “An Efficient Neural Network Model for De-Noising of MEMS-Based Inertial Data”, The Journal of Navigation, Vol. 57, 2004, Pp. 407-415.

Fei, J., Wu, D., “Adaptive Control of MEMS Gyroscope Using Fully Tuned RBF Neural Network”, Neural Computing And Applications, 2015, Pp. 1-8.

Fontanella, R., Accardo, D., Caricati, E., Cimmino, S., And Simone, D. D., “An Extensive Analysis for The Use of Back Propagation Neural Networks to Perform The Calibration of MEMS Gyro Bias Thermal Drift”, In 2016 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), 2016, Pp. 672-680.

Yan, W., Hou, S., Fang, Y., and Fei, J., “Robust Adaptive Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control of MEMS Gyroscope Using Fuzzy-Neural-Network Compensator”, International Journal of Machine Learning And Cybernetics, 2016, Pp. 1-13.

Mehrabian, A. R., Yousefi-Koma, A., “A Novel Technique for Optimal Placement of Piezoelectric Actuators on Smart Structures”, Journal of The Franklin Institute, Vol. 348, 2011, Pp. 12-23.

Rabenorosoa, K., Clévy, C., Lutz, P., Das, A. N., Murthy, R., And Popa, D., “Precise Motion Control of a Piezoelectric Microgripper for Microspectrometer Assembly”, In ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers And Information In Engineering Conference, 2009, Pp. 769-776.

Dang, X., Tan, Y., “RBF Neural Networks Hysteresis Modelling for Piezoceramic Actuator Using Hybrid Model”, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 21, 2007, Pp. 430-440.

Dong, R., Tan, Y., Chen, H., And Xie, Y., “A Neural Networks Based Model for Rate-Dependent Hysteresis for Piezoceramic Actuators”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 143, 2008, Pp. 370-376.

Luo, J., Fu, Y., Williams, J., And Milne, W., “Thermal Degradation of Electroplated Nickel Thermal Microactuators”, Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of, Vol. 18, 2009, Pp. 1279-1287.

Comsol, M., Femlab, R., “Module Model Library”, COMSOL Multiphysics®, Version, Vol. 3, 2005,

Mankame, N. D., Ananthasuresh, G., “Comprehensive Thermal Modelling And Characterization of An Electro-Thermal-Compliant Microactuator”, Journal Of Micromechanics And Microengineering, Vol. 11, 2001, Pp. 452.

Hamedi, M., Vismeh, M., And Salimi, P., “A New MEMS Assembly Unit for Hybrid Self Micropositioning and Forced Microclamping of Submilimeter Parts”, In Advanced Materials Research, 2011, Pp. 1705-1712.

Shakeri, S., Ghassemi, A., Hassani, M., And Hajian, A., “Investigation of Material Removal Rate and Surface Roughness In Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process For Cementation Alloy Steel Using Artificial Neural Network”, the International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 82, 2016, Pp. 549-557.

Leema, N., Radha, P., Vettivel, S. C., And Khanna Nehemiah, H., “Characterization, Pore Size Measurement And Wear Model of a Sintered Cu–W Nano Composite Using Radial Basis Functional Neural Network”, Materials & Design, Vol. 68, 3/5/ 2015, Pp. 195-206.

Xia, X., Nie, J. F., Davies, C. H. J., Tang, W. N., Xu, S. W., And Birbilis, N., “An Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Corrosion Rate and Hardness of Magnesium Alloys”, Materials & Design, Vol. 90, 1/15/ 2016, Pp. 1034-1043.

Salehi, I., Shirani, M., Semnani, A., Hassani, M., and Habibollahi, S., “Comparative Study Between Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network for Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Magnetic Activated Carbon”, Arabian Journal for Science And Engineering, 2016, Pp. 1-11.

Shirani, M., Akbari, A., and Hassani, M., “Adsorption of Cadmium (Ii) And Copper (Ii) From Soil and Water Samples onto a Magnetic Organozeolite Modified With 2-(3, 4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-1, 3-Dithiane Using An Artificial Neural Network and Analysed By Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry”, Analytical Methods, Vol. 7, 2015, Pp. 6012-6020.

Jenab, A., Sari Sarraf, I., Green, D. E., Rahmaan, T., and Worswick, M. J., “The Use of Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network to Predict Rate-Dependent Tensile Flow Behaviour of AA5182-O Sheets”, Materials & Design, Vol. 94, 3/15/ 2016, Pp. 262-273.

Krecinic, F., Duc, T. C., Lau, G., And Sarro, P., “Finite Element Modelling and Experimental Characterization of an Electro-Thermally Actuated Silicon-Polymer Micro Gripper”, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 18, 2008, P. 064007.

Paryab, N., Jahed, H., And Khajepour, A., “Creep and Fatigue Failure In Single-And Double Hot Arm MEMS Thermal Actuators”, Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 9, 2009, Pp. 159-170.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Address: Mechanical Engineering Department, Majlesi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran. Postal Code: 8631656451

Tel: (+98)31-52472290 ext. 212 - Email: jmechanic@iaumajlesi.ac.ir

All Rights Reserved. © 2007-2015 Islamic Azad University, Majlesi Branch.

Powered by Taba Web